[1].On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2019,10(2):105-128.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091]
 Jinlong REN,Kai WANG,Peng GUO,et al.On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2019,10(2):105-128.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091]

On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera()

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]



On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera
Jinlong REN1 2 3 Kai WANG4 Peng GUO5 Yingyong WANG6 Tao Thien NGUYEN7 8 and Jiatang LI1 2 9*

Paratapinophis prefrontal scales Sinonatrix taxonomic revision Trimerodytes
The single prefrontal configuration has historically been used as an important diagnostic character for many natricine taxa. For example, the genus Trimerodytes Cope, 1895 was long been regarded as a junior synonym of Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 for their similar prefrontal configurations and the type species, T. balteatus Cope, 1895, has been assigned to the genus Opisthotropis. However, as the number and arrangement of prefrontal vary frequently both at species and generic level, it is questionable whether the synonymization of Trimerodytes reflects their evolutionary relationships. On the basis of recently collected specimens of O. balteata, the generic status of the species was assessed using both molecular and morphological data. Opisthotropis was recovered as polyphyletic with reference to O. balteata, because O. balteata is nested within the genus Sinonatrix Rossman and Eberle, 1977 and is the sister species of the type species of Sinonatrix. Consequently, we herein resurrect the long-overlooked synonym Trimerodytes from Opisthotropis and synonymize the junior generic nomen Sinonatrix with Trimerodytes. In addition, based on morphological similarities between the monotypic genus Paratapinophis Angel, 1929 and Trimerodytes, we doubt about the validity of Paratapinophis. Following taxonomic changes in this work, the taxonomic account of the genus Trimerodytes, updated descriptions of its type species, and diagnostic key to Trimerodytes species are provided.


Angel F. 1929. Liste des Reptiles et Batraciens du Haut-Laos recueillis par M. Delacour. Description d’un genre, de deux espèces et d’une variété d’Ophidiens. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat, 2: 75–81 (In French)
Boulenger G. 1906. Descriptions of new reptiles from Yunnan. Ann Mag Nat Hist 17(102): 567–568
Boulenger G. A. 1893. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. I. containing the families Typhlopidae, Glauconiidae, Boidae, Ilysiidae, Uropeltidae, Xenopeltidae, and Colubridae Aglyphae, part. London: British Museum of Natural History, 448 pp
Bourret R. 1934. Notes herpétologiques sur l’Indochine fran?aise. III. Ophidiens d’Annam et du Moyen Laos. Bulletin général de l’instruction Publique, 13e Année (9, Mai): 167–176 (In French)
Brown W. C., Leviton A. E. 1961. Discovery of the Snake Genus Opisthotropis in the Philippine Islands: With Description of a New Species. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum of Stanford University, 8: 1–5
Burbrink F. T., Lawson R., Slowinski J. B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the polytypic North American rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Evolution, 54(6): 2107–2118
Cai B., Wang Y. Z., Chen Y. Y., Li J. T. 2015. A revised taxonomy for Chinese reptiles. Biodiversity Science, 23(3): 365–382 (In Chinese)
Chan-Ard T., Nabhitabhata J., Parr J. W. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, 314 pp
Chuaynkern Y., Duangkae P., Pongcharoen C., Chuaynkern C., Horsin L. 2014. Opisthotropis spenceri Smith, 1918 (Serpentes: Natricidae): the third and fourth specimens. J Wildlife Thailand, 21(1): 1–14
Cope E. 1895. On a collection of Batrachia and Reptilia from the island of Hainan. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia [1894]: 423–428
Cox M. J. 1995. Opisthotrophis boonsongi. Herpetol Rev, 26(3): 157
David P., Nguyen Q. T., Ziegler T. 2011. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 (Squamata: Natricidae) from the highlands of Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. Zootaxa, 2758(1): 43–56
David P., Pauwels O. S. G., Nguyen Q. T., Vogel G. 2015. On the taxonomic status of the Thai endemic freshwater snake Parahelicops boonsongi, with the erection of a new genus (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa, 3948(2): 203–217
Fan T.-H. 1931. Preliminary report of reptiles from Yaoshan, Kwangsi, China. Bulletin of the Deptartment of Biology, Sun Yat-sen University, 11: 1–154
Figueroa A., McKelvy A. D., Grismer L. L., Bell C. D., Lailvaux S. P. 2016. A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus. PLoS ONE, 11(9): e0161070
Günther A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann Mag Nat Hist, 9(4): 13–37
Guo P., Liu Q., Xu Y., Jiang K., Hou M., Ding L., Pyron R. A., Burbrink F. T. 2012. Out of Asia: natricine snakes support the Cenozoic Beringian Dispersal Hypothesis. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 63(3): 825–833
Hoogmoed M. S., Avila-Pires T. C. S. 2011. A case of voluntary tail autotomy in the snake Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae). Bol Mus Para Emílio Goeldi Cienc Nat, Belém, 6(2): 113–117
Huang M., Cai C., Jin Y., Gu H., Zhang S., Guo H., Wei J. 1990. Fauna of Zhejiang, Amphibia, Reptilia. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, 306 pp (In Chinese)
ICZN 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences. London: International Trust of Zoological Nomenclature, 306 pp
Iskandar D. T., Kamsi K. 2009. On the second specimen of Opisthotropis rugosus (van Lidth de Jeude, 1890) (Colubridae, Natricinae). Hamadryad, 34(1): 108–111
Karsen S. J., Lau M. W., Bogadek A. 1998. Hong Kong amphibians and reptiles, 2nd ed. Hong Kong: Urban Council, 186 pp
Karsen S. J., Lau M. W., Bogadek A. 1986. Hong Kong amphibians and reptiles. Urban Council, 136 pp
Kizirian D., Truong N. Q., Ngo H. T., Le M. D. 2018. Parahelicops, Pararhabdophis, Paraphyly: Phylogenetic Relationships among Certain Southeast Asian Natricine Snakes (Hebius). Am Mus Novit, (3906): 1–7
Lanfear R., Frandsen P. B., Wright A. M., Senfeld T., Calcott B. 2017. PartitionFinder 2: New methods for selecting partitioned models of evolution for molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses. Mol Biol Evol, 34(3): 772–773
Le T. D., Pham V. A., Pham T. C., Nguyen L. H. S., Ziegler T., Nguyen Q. T. 2015. Review of the genus Sinonatrix in Vietnam with a new country record of Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao Et Yang, 1998. Russ J Herpetol, 22(2): 84–88
Lidth de Jeude T. W. V. 1890. Reptilia from the Malay Archipelago. II. Ophidia Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederl?ndisch Ost-Indien. E. J. Brill, Leiden. p 178–192.
Malnate E. V., Underwood G. 1988. Australasian natricine snakes of the genus Tropidonophis. Proc Acad Nat Sci Phila, 140(1): 59–201
Mell R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Science Journal, 8 [1929]: 199–219
Mo D., Chen H., Li F. 1984. Opisthotropis premaxillaris (sic) (Angel), a record new to China. Acta Herpetol Sinica, 3(1): 28 (In Chinese)
Mocquard F. 1890. Recherches sur la faune herpétologique des ?les de Bornéo et de Palawan. Nouv Arch Mus Hist Nat, 3(2): 115–168 (In French)
Murphy J. C., Chan-ard T., Mekchai S., Cota M., Voris H. K. 2008. The Rediscovery of Angel’s Stream Snake, Paratapinophis praemaxillaris Angel, 1929 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Natricidae). Nat Hist J Chulalongkorn Univ, 8(2): 169–183
Nguyen V. S., Ho T. C., Nguyen Q. T. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Frankfurt am Main: Edition Chimaira, 768 pp
Noonloy T., Kunya K., Chanhome L., Sumontha M., Chomngam N., Pauwels O. S. G. 2018. Crab-ripping: an unusual feeding behavior newly recorded in freshwater snakes. Bull Chicago Herpetol Soc, 53(3): 53–56
O’Shea M., Allison A., Kaiser H. 2018. The taxonomic history of the enigmatic Papuan snake genus Toxicocalamus (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae), with the description of a new species from the Managalas Plateau of Oro Province, Papua New Guinea, and a revised dichotomous key. Amphibia-Reptilia, 39(4): 403–433
Okada Y., Takara T. 1958. A new species of Liopeltis (Ophidia, Colubridae) from Ryukyu Islands. Bull Biogeographical Soc Japan, 20(3): 1–3
Orlov N. L., Darevsky I. S., Murphy R. W. 1998. A new species of mountain stream snake, genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae), from the tropical rain forests of southern Vietnam. Russ J Herpetol, 5(1): 61–64
Ota H. 2004. Field observations on a highly endangered snake, Opisthotropis kikuzatoi (Squamata: Colubridae), endemic to Kumejima Island, Japan. Current herpetology, 23(2): 73–80
Pauwels O. S. G., Kunya K., David P., Sumontha M. 2009. First record of the Yunnan Keelback Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao and Yang, 1998 (Serpentes: Natricidae) from Thailand. Salamandra, 45(3): 165–169
Peracca M. 1904. Nouvelles espèces d’Ophidiens d’Asie et d’Amerique, faisant partie de la collection du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. Rev Suisse Zool, 12(3): 663–668 (In French)
Pope C. H. 1935. The reptiles of China. Turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 604 pp
Pyron R. A., Kandambi H. K., Hendry C. R., Pushpamal V., Burbrink F. T., Somaweera R. 2013. Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 66(3): 969–978
Rambaut A., Suchard M., Xie D., Drummond A. 2013. Tracer, version 1.6, MCMC trace analysis package. Retrieved from http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/tracer/ Accessed 7 March 2018
Rao D.-Q., Yang D.-T. 1998. A new species of Sinonatrix (Serpentes: Colubridae) of China with preliminary survey on Sinonatrix. Russ J Herpetol, 5(1): 70–73
Rasmussen J. B. 1982. A new record of the rare Opisthotropis praemaxillaris (Serpentes: Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 3(2): 279–280
Ren J.-L., Wang K., Jiang K., Guo P., Li J.-T. 2017. A new species of the Southeast Asian genus Opisthotropis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae) from western Hunan, China. Zool Res, 38(5): 251–263
Ren J.-L., Wang K., Nguyen T. T., Hoang C. V., Zhong G.-H., Jiang K., Guo P., Li J.-T. 2018. Taxonomic re-uation of the monotypic genus Pararhabdophis Bourret, 1934 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) with discovery of its type species, P. chapaensis, from China. Zootaxa, 4486(1): 31–56
Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J. P. 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19(12): 1572–1574
Rossman D. A., Eberle W. G. 1977. Partition of the genus Natrix, with preliminary observations on evolutionary trends in natricine snakes. Herpetologica, 33(1): 34–43
Saint-Girons H. 1972. Les serpents du Cambodge. Paris: Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 170 pp
Schmidt K. P. 1927. The reptiles of Hainan. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist, 54(3): 395–465
Shen Y., Ye Y., Deng X. 2014. Fauna Hunan. Reptilia. Changsha: Hunan Science and Technology Press, 220 pp
Smith M. A. 1943. The fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, including the whole of the Indo-chinese subregion. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III. Serpentes. London: Taylor and Francis, 583 pp
Stamatakis A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30(9): 1312–1313
Steindachner F. 1906. Bemerkungen zu Liparophis Bedoti, Peracca und Lachesis monticola (Gthr.). Sitzungsber Akad Wiss Wien, math-natur-wiss Kl, 115(1): 905–909
Stuart B. L., Heatwole H. 2008. Country records of snakes from Laos. Hamadryad, 33(1): 97–106
Stuebing R. B., Inger R. F. 1998. Additional records on two rare snakes from Borneo, with the confirmation of Trimeresurus malcolmi Loveridge as a distinct species. Raffles Bull Zool, 46: 325–328
Sun Y.-B. 2017. FasParser: a package for manipulating sequence data. Zool Res, 38(2): 110–112
Takeuchi H., Savitzky A. H., Ding L., de Silva A., Das I., Nguyen T. T., Tsai T. S., Jono T., Zhu G. X., Mahaulpatha D. 2018. Evolution of nuchal glands, unusual defensive organs of Asian natricine snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae), inferred from a molecular phylogeny. Ecol Evol, in press.
Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol, 30(12): 2725–2729
Taylor E. H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ Kans Sci Bull, 45(9): 609–1096
Taylor E. H., Elbel R. E. 1958. Contribution to the herpetology of Thailand. Univ Kans Sci Bull, 38(2): 1033–1189
Teynié A., Lottier A., David P., Nguyen Q. T., Vogel G. 2014. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872 from northern Laos (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa, 3774(2): 165–182
Toyama M. 1983. Taxonomic reassignment of the colubrid snake, Opheodrys kikuzatoi, from Kume-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago. Jpn J Herpetol, 10(2): 33–38
Uetz P., Freed P., Ho?ek J. 2018. The Reptile Database. Retrieved from http://www.reptile-database.org. Accessed 27 March 2018
Vogel G., David P., Pauwels O. S. G., Brachtel N. 2004. On the occurrence of the watersnake Sinonatrix aequifasciata (Barbour, 1908) (Serpentes, Colubridae, Natricinae) in Vietnam. Hamadryad 29(1): 110–114
Wallach V., Williams K. L., Boundy J. 2014. Snakes of the world. A catalogue of living and extinct species. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1209 pp
Wang J., Lyu Z., Zeng Z., Liu Z., Wang Y. 2017a. Re-description of Opisthotropis laui Yang, Sung and Chan, 2013 (Squamata: Natricidae). Asian Herpetol Res, 8(1): 70–74
Wang Y. Y., Guo Q., Liu Z. Y., Lyu Z. T., Wang J., Luo L., Sun Y. J., Zhang Y. W. 2017b. Revisions of two poorly known species of Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) with description of a new species from China. Zootaxa, 4247(4): 391–412
Wu L., Li D. J., Liu J. S. 1985. Reptilian Fauna of Guizhou. Guiyang: Guizhou Peoples Press, 436 pp (In Chinese)
Yang J.-H., Sung Y.-H., Chan B. P.-L. 2013. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Guangdong Province, China. Zootaxa, 3646(3): 289–296
Ye Y., Deng X. 1997. Five New Records of Snake in Hunan Province. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 32(5): 46–47 (In Chinese)
Zhang F. J., Hu S. Q., Zhao E. M. 1984. Comparative studies and phylogenetic discussions on hemipenial morphology of the Chinese Colubrinae (Colubridae). Acta Herpetol Sinica, 3(3): 23–44 (In Chinese)
Zhao E. M. 2006. Snakes of China. I. Hefei: Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, 372 pp (In Chinese)
Zhao E. M., Adler K. 1993. Herpetology of China. Oxford: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles: Contribution to Herpetology, 522 pp
Zhao E. M., Huang M. H., Zong Y. 1998. Fauna Sinica Reptilia, Vol. 3: Squamata, Serpentes. Beijing: Science Press, 522 pp (In Chinese)
Zhao E. M., Jiang Y. M. 1981. A new species and subspecies of snakes from Sichuan. Acta Herpetol Sinica, 5(7): 53–58 (In Chinese)
Zheng J. 1992. A note on the genus Opisthotropis in China. Wuyi Science Journal, 9: 369–372 (In Chinese)
Ziegler T., David P., Vu N. T. 2008. A new natricine snake of the genus Opisthotropis from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam (Squamata, Colubridae). Zoosystematics Evol, 84(2): 197–203
Ziegler T., David P., Ziegler N. T., Pham T. C., Nguyen Q. T., Le D. M. 2018. Morphological and molecular review of Jacob’s Mountain Stream Keelback Opisthotropis jacobi Angel and Bourret, 1933 (Squamata: Natricidae) with description of a sibling species from northern Vietnam. Zootaxa, 4374(4): 476–496
Ziegler T., Ziegler T. N., Peusquens J., David P., Vu N. T., Pham T. C., Nguyen Q. T., Le M. D. 2017. Expanded morphological definition and molecular phylogenetic position of the Tam Dao mountain stream keelback Opisthotropis tamdaoensis (Squamata: Natricidae) from Vietnam. Rev Suisse Zool, 124(2): 377–389

更新日期/Last Update: 2019-06-25