[1].Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2015,6(3):213-219.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.140055]
 GUIDETTI Brenda Yamile*,SIROSKI Pablo Ariel and AMAVET Patricia Susana.Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii[J].Asian Herpetological Reserch(AHR),2015,6(3):213-219.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.140055]

Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii()

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]



Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii
GUIDETTI Brenda Yamile* SIROSKI Pablo Ariel and AMAVET Patricia Susana
Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
fresh water turtles variability molecular markers RAPD ISSR
The utilization of RAPD and ISSR molecular markers is proposed to initiate studies of genetic variability in Phrynops hilarii (Chelidae) and Trachemys dorbigni (Emydidae), two species of fresh water turtles distributed in South America. Three primers of RAPD and four of ISSR were selected and the amplified products of these markers were evaluated by electrophoretic runs in agarose and polyacrylamide gels. The levels of heterozygosity, Shannon index and different allele numbers were slightly higher in P. hilarii for both types of markers. Levels of polymorphism were also higher in P. hilarii than T. dorbigni and both were elevated compared to those recorded for other species. The fact that similar results were obtained with both types of markers for all estimates of diversity highlights the usefulness and validity of the RAPD technique. The molecular markers used were found potentially useful for analysing future temporal and spatial distribution of genetic diversity in both species, expanding scales work.


Alacs A., Janzen F., Scribner K. 2007. Genetic issues in freshwater turtle and tortoise conservation. In Shaffer H., FitzSimmons N., Georges A., Rhodin A. (Eds.), Defining Turtle Diversity: Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetics, Ethics, and Taxonomy of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises. Chelonian Research Foundation, Chelon Res Monogr, 4: 134–152
Amavet P., Vilardi J., Rosso E., Saidman B. 2009. Genetic and morphometric variability in Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman), reptilia, alligatoridae. J Exp Zool, 309A: 1–12
Bager A., de Freitas T., Krause L. 2007. Nesting ecology of population of Trachemys dorbignyi (Emydidae) in Southern Brazil. Herpetologica, 63(1): 56–65
Bardakci F., Skibinsi O. 1994. Application of the RAPD technique in tilapia fish: Species and subspecies identification. Heredity, 73: 117–123
Bassam B., Caetano-Anollés G., Gresshoff P. 1991. Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Anal Biochem, 196: 80–83
Bujes C. 2010. Os Testudines continentais do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: Taxonomía, historia natural e conserva??o. Iheringia, Sér Zool, 4: 413–424
Carreira S., Estrades A., Achaval F. 2007. Estado de conservación de la fauna de tortugas (Reptilia, Testudines) de Uruguay. Boletín Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, 16: 20–25
CITES 2011. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Appendix I, II and III (http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml)
Duan J., Gu H., Xia Z., Ye M., Chen H., Zhang F. 2011. Genetic diversity analysis of Eretmochelys Imbricata by RAPD method. Chin J Wildl, 5: 264–266, 292
Fagundes C., Bager A., Zanini S. 2010. Trachemys dorbigni in an anthropic environment in southern Brazil: Sexual size dimorphism and population estimates. Herpetol J, 20: 185–193
Fritz U., Fattizzo T., Guicking D., Tripepi S., Pennisi., M., Lenk P., Joger U., Wink M. 2005. A new cryptic species of pond turtle from southern Italy, the hottest spot in the range of the genus Emys (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae). Zool Scr, 34: 351–371
Fritz U., Hundsd?rfer A., ?irok? P., Auer M., Kami H., Lehmann J., Mazanaeva L., Türkozan O., Wink M. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity leads to incongruence between morphology-based taxonomy and genetic differentiation in western Palaearctic tortoises (Testudo graeca complex; Testudines, Testudinidae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 97–121
Grosberg R., Levitan D., Cameron B. 1996. Characterization of genetic structure and genealogies using RAPD-PCR markers: A random primer for the novice and nervous. In Ferraris J., Palumbi S. (Eds.), Molecular Zoology: Advances, Strategies, and Protocols. New York: Wiley-Liss, 67–100
Herring A., Inglis N., Ojeh C., Snodgrass D., Merizies J. 1982. Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. J Clin Microbiol, 16: 473–477
Hoffmann M. et al. 2010. The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates. Science, 330: 1503–1509
IUCN. 2011. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1 (http://www.iucnredlist.org)
Lavilla E., Richard E., Scrocchi G. 2000. Categorización de los Anfibios y Reptiles de la República Argentina. Asociación Herpetológica Argentina, San Miguel de Tucumán
Longmire J., Lewis A., Brown N., Buckingham J., Clark L., Jones M., Meincke L., Meyne J., Ratliff R., Ray F., Wagner R., Moyzis R. 1988. Isolation and molecular characterization of a highly polymorphic centromic tandem repeat in the family Falconidae. Genomics, 2: 14–24
Lynch M., Milligan B. 1994. Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markers. Mol Ecol, 3: 91–99
Ma L., Zheng G., Zhu X., Liu Y., Chen Y., Luo J. 2007a. Genetic diversity analysis of Platysternon megacephalum by RAPD method. Freshw Fish, 2: 76–79
Ma L., Zheng G., Zhu X., Liu Y., Chen Y., Luo J. 2007b. Genetic diversity in two natural populations of Platysternon megacephalum as revealed by ISSR technique. Chin J Zool, 49(1): 13–20
Martinez P., Boeris J., Sánchez J., Pastori M., Bolzán A., Ledesma M. 2009. Karyotypic characterization of Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines: Emydidae) and Chelonoidis (Geochelone) donosobarrosi (Testudines: Testudinidae), two species of Cryptodiran turtles from Argentina. Genetica, 3: 277–283
Mockford S, Snyder M., Herman T. 1999. A preliminary examination of genetic variation in a peripheral population of Blanding’s turtle, Emydoidea blandingii. Mol Ecol, 8(2): 323–327
Murray M., Thompson W. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res, 8: 4321–4325
Nei M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. Amer Nat, 106(949): 283–292
Nei M. 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics, 89(3): 583–590
Olson G., Hessler J., Faith R. 1975. Technics for blood collection and intravascular infusion of reptiles. Lab Anim Sci, 6: 783–786
Peakall R., Smouse P. 2006. GENALEX 6: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes, 6: 288–295
Reca A., ?beda C., Grigera D. 1994. Conservación de la fauna de tetrápodos. Un índice para su evaluación. Mastozool Neotrop, 1(1): 17–28
Rentaría Alcántara M. 2007. Breve revisión de los marcadores moleculares. In Eguiarte L., Souza V., Aguirre X. (Eds.), Ecología molecular. México: Semarnat-UNAM-Conabio, 541–566
Richard E. 1999. Tortugas de las Regiones ?ridas de Argentina. Editorial LOLA, Buenos Aires
Rocha M., Gasca J. 2007. Ecología molecular de la conservación. In Eguiarte L., Souza V., Aguirre X. (Eds.), Ecología molecular. México: Semarnat-UNAM-Conabio, 253–278
Rubin C., Warner R., Bouzat J., Paige K. 2001. Population genetic structure of Blanding?s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in an urban landscape. Biol Cons, 99: 323–330
Salas A. 2011. Estudios citogenéticos en la tortuga pintada (Trachemys dorbigni: Reptilia, Emydidae). Bachelor Thesis UNL-FHUC, Santa Fe, Argentina
Schilde M, Barth D., Fritz U. 2004. An Ocadia sinensis x Cyclemys shanensis hybrid (Testudines:Geoemydidae). Asiat Herpetol Res, 10: 120–125
Semyenova S., Korsunenko A., Vasilyev V., Pereschkolnik S., Mazanaeva L., Bannikova A., Ryskov A. 2004. RAPD variation in Mediterranean turtle Testudo graeca (Testudinidae). Russ J Genet, 12: 1348–1355
Souza F., Cunha A., Oliveira M., Pereira G., Pinheiro H. F. dos Reisa S. 2002. Partitioning of molecular variation at local spatial scales in the vulnerable neotropical freshwater turtle, Hydromedusa maximiliani (Testudines, Chelidae): Implications for the conservation of aquatic organisms in natural hierarchical systems. Biol Cons, 104: 119–126
Tan S., Ng Y., Joseph J., Chan E. 2000. Genetic variation in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Malaysia using RAPD markers. Towards sustainable management of the Straits of Malacca, 261–266
Ubeda C., Grigera D. 2003. Analysis of the last assessment of conservation status of amphibians and reptiles from Argentina. Gayana, 67(1): 97–113
Vázquez Domínguez E. 2007. Filogeografía y vertebrados. In Eguiarte L., Souza V., Aguirre X. (Eds.), Ecología molecular. México: Semarnat-UNAM-Conabio, 441–466
White P., Densmore L. 1992. Mitochondrial DNA isolation. In Hoelzel A. (Eds.), Molecular genetic analysis of populations. A practical approach. The practical approach series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 29–57
Zheng G., Ma L., Zhu X., Liu Y., Chen Y., Luo J. 2008. Genetic diversity analysis between two populations of Platysternon megacephalum by RAPD. J Huazhong Agric Univ, 27(4): 510–514
Zhu X., Du H., Zhou L., Li M., Gui J. 2005. Genetic diversity analysis of Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii) by RAPD. Acta Hydrobiol Sin, 29: 167–171
Zhu X., Zhou L., Chen Y., Du H., Gui J. 2008. Phenotypic and genetic variation between two populations of the Chinese yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica (Cantor, 1842). Chin High Tech Lett, 14: 104–111
Zhu X. 2011. Analysis of genetic diversity amongst Chinemys reevesii in Guangxi using RAPD markers. J South Agric, 42(9): 1148–1150
Zietkiewicz E., Rafalski A., Labuda D. 1994. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics, 20: 176–183

更新日期/Last Update: 2016-01-25