[1].[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2014,5(4):240-244.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2014.00240]
 Jie WANG,Feng XIE,Gang WANG and Jianping JIANG*.Group-spawning and Simultanous Polyandry of a Stream-dwelling Frog Feirana kangxianensis[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2014,5(4):240-244.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2014.00240]


Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

Original Article


Group-spawning and Simultanous Polyandry of a Stream-dwelling Frog Feirana kangxianensis
Jie WANG12 Feng XIE12 Gang WANG12 and Jianping JIANG12*
1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
2 Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, CAS and Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041, China
group-spawning oviposition site sex ratio simultaneous polyandry habitat conservation
Here we provide an example of simultaneous polyandry based on genetic evidence in Feirana kangxianensis. This stream-dwelling species occurs only in Kangxian County, southern Gansu Province, where it is sympatric with its sibling species F. quadranus. During the breeding season the sex ratio of F. kangxianensis was marginally female-biased (44♂:59♀) and the encounter rate in a relatively pristine habitat was significantly higher than that in heavily quarried habitats (9.6 ± 4.8 indiv./km vs. 3.2 ± 2.5 indiv./km). Three egg masses containing an average of 698 eggs were deposited on the underside of one or two adjacent flat rocks, 6.0–10.0 cm under the water surface and 1.0–3.5 cm above the streambed. Using Bayesian sibship clustering of nine polymorphic microsatellite genotypes, two females were detected as group-spawning in one oviposition site, with three males fertilizing each female’s eggs simultaneously. We also discuss the conservation requirements of this range-restricted species and the evolutionary implication of its unusual reproductive strategy.


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