[1].Endemic Amphibians and Their Distribution in China[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2012,3(2):163-171.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2012.00163]
 Junhua HU,Cheng LI,Feng XIE and Jianping JIANG*.Endemic Amphibians and Their Distribution in China[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2012,3(2):163-171.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2012.00163]

Endemic Amphibians and Their Distribution in China()

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

Original Article


Endemic Amphibians and Their Distribution in China
Junhua HU Cheng LI Feng XIE and Jianping JIANG*
Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China
amphibian diversity conservation distribution pattern elevational gradient endemic species
Amphibians are good indicators of ecosystem health. Updating the information of endemic species in time and understanding their spatial distributions are necessary for the development of integrative conservation strategies and the elucidation of geographic patterns of amphibians. We analyzed the diversity and distributions of the endemic amphibians in China based on a database of specimen records, recently published literature, and field surveys. Two hundred and sixty two endemic species of amphibians, belonging to 59 genera in 12 families and two orders, are recognized. They account for 67% of the total number of amphibian species in China, with the family Megophryidae possessing the largest number of endemics. There are also 17 genera endemic to China. Across provinces, the species richness of endemics shows five levels with a hierarchical diversification. Sichuan has the largest number of endemics, while Heilongjiang and Jilin have no endemic species. Alternatively, whether on the level of endemic genus or species, the highest diversity occurs in the Western Mountains and Plateau Subregion. The distribution ranges of most endemic species cover ≤ 4 provinces or zoogeographic subregions. Additionally, the species richness of endemics along an elevational gradient shows a bell-shaped pattern with the peak around 800 m. Most endemic species are distributed in areas of low to mid elevation (c. 700–1 500 m), while 36 species are distributed up to 3 000 m. Endemic species richness decreases with increasing of elevation range. Species at mid elevations display large range sizes, while species at lower and higher elevations exhibit smaller ranges. Our results are to be beneficial for further exploration of the underlying mechanisms of distributional patterns of amphibians in China. This study highlights a need to promote conservation programs for Chinese endemic amphibians due to their narrow distribution ranges and potential threats.


Brooks T. M., Mittermeier R. A., Mittermeier C. G., Da Fonseca G. A. B., Rylands A. B., Konstant W. R., Flick P., Pilgrim J., Oldfield S., Magin G., Hilton-Taylor C. 2002 Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conserv Biol, 16: 909–923.
Chen L., Song Y., Xu S. 2008. The boundary of palaearctic and oriental realms in western China. Prog Nat Sci, 18: 833–841
Collins J. P., Storfer A. 2003. Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses. Divers Distrib, 9: 89–98
Crisp M. D., Laffan S., Linder H. P., Monro A. 2001. Endemism in the Australian flora. J Biogeogr, 28: 183–198
Fei L., Hu S., Ye C., Huang Y. 2006. Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 1. General Accounts of Amphibia, Gymnophiona and Urodela. Beijing: Science Press
Fei L., Hu S., Ye C., Huang Y. 2009a. Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 2. Anura. Beijing: Science Press
Fei L., Hu S., Ye C., Huang Y. 2009b. Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 3. Anura, Ranidae. Beijing: Science Press
Fei L., Ye C., Jiang J. 2010a. Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians. Chengdu: Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology
Fei L., Ye C., Jiang J. 2010b. Phylogenetic systematic of Ranidae. Herpetol Sin, 12: 1–43.
Fei L., Ye C., Jiang J., Xie F. 2008. Two new species of the Ranidae from China, with phylogenetic relationships of Hylarana (Sylvirana) nigrovittata group (Amphibia, Anura). Acta Zootaxon Sin, 33: 199–206
Frost D. R. 2011. Amphibian species of the world: An online reference. Version 5.5 (8 October, 2011). Electronic database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/. American Museum of Natural History, New York
Fu C., Hua X., Li J., Chang Z., Pu Z., Chen J. 2006. Elevational patterns of frog species richness and endemic richness in the Hengduan Mountains, China: Geometric constraints, area and climate effects. Ecography, 29: 919–927
Gaston K. J. 1994. Rarity. London: Chapman & Hall
Grau O., Grytnes J. A., Birks H. J. B. 2007. A comparison of altitudinal species richness patterns of bryophytes with other plant groups in Nepal, Central Himalaya. J Biogeogr, 34: 1907–1915
Hopper S. D., Gioia P. 2004. The southwest Australian floristic region: Evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst, 623–650
Hu J., Hu H., Jiang Z. 2010. The impacts of climate change on the wintering distribution of an endangered migratory bird. Oecologia, 164: 555–565
Hu J., Jiang Z. 2010. Predicting the potential distribution of the endangered Przewalski’s gazelle. J Zool, 282: 54–63
Hu J., Jiang Z. 2011. Climate change hastens the conservation urgency of an endangered ungulate. PLoS ONE, 6: e22873
Hu J., Xie F., Li C., Jiang J. 2011. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs. PLoS ONE, 6: e19817
Jablonski D. 1986. Background and mass extinctions: The alternation of macroevolutionary regimes. Science, 231: 129–133
Jiang J., Xie F., Li C. 2010. Diversity and Conservation Status of Chinese Amphibians. In Harold H., Indraneil, D. John W. (Eds). Amphibian Biology (In press)
Jiang Z. 1997. Conservation Biology. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Science and Technology Press
Kluge J., Kessler M. 2006. Fern endemism and its correlates: contribution from an elevational transect in Costa Rica. Divers Distrib, 12: 535–545
Laffan S. W., Crisp M. D. 2003. Assessing endemism at multiple spatial scales, with an example from the Australian vascular flora. J Biogeogr, 30: 511–520
Lai J., Lue K. 2008. Two new Hynobius (Caudata: Hynobiidae) salamanders from Taiwan. Herpetologica, 64: 63–80
Lei F., Qu Y., Lu J., Liu Y., Yin Z. 2003. Conservation on diversity and distribution patterns of endemic birds in China. Biodivers Conserv, 12: 239–254
Lomolino M., Riddle B. R., Brown J. H. 2006. Biogeography (3rd Ed). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates
Myers N., Mittermeier R. A., Mittermeier C. G., da Fonseca G. A. B., Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403: 853–858
Nishikawa K., Jiang J., Matsui M., Chen C. 2009. Morphological variation in Pachytriton labiatus and a re-assessment of the taxonomic status of P. granulosus (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Curr Herpetol, 28: 49–64
Nishikawa K., Jiang J., Matsui M., Mo Y. 2011a. Unmasking Pachytriton labiatus (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae), with description of a new species of Pachytriton from Guangxi, China. Zool Sci, 28: 453–461
Nishikawa K., Jiang J. P., Matsui M. 2011b. Two new species of Pachytriton from Anhui and Guangxi, China (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Curr Herpetol, 30: 15–31
Patterson B. D., Stotz D. F., Solari S., Fitzpatrick J. W., Pacheco V. 1998. Contrasting patterns of elevational zonation for birds and mammals in the Andes of southeastern Peru. J Biogeogr, 25: 593–607
Rowe R. 2009. Environmental and geometric drivers of small mammal diversity along elevational gradients in Utah. Ecography, 32: 411–422
Shen Y., Deng X., Wang B. 2004. A new hynobiid species Hynobius guabangshanensis from Hunan Province, China (Amphibia: Hynobiidae). Acta Zool Sin, 50: 209–215
Shi H., Zhao E., Wang L. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia Fauna of Hainan. Beijing: Science Press.
Slatyer C., Rosauer D., Lemckert F. 2007. An assessment of endemism and species richness patterns in the Australian Anura. J Biogeogr, 34: 583–596
Smith A. T., Xie Y. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Sodhi N. S., Bickford D., Diesmos A. C., Lee T. M., Koh L. P., Brook B. W., Sekercioglu C. H., Bradshaw C. J. A. 2008. Measuring the meltdown: Drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline. PloS ONE, 3: e1636
Stuart S. N., Chanson J. S., Cox N. A., Young B. E., Rodrigues A. S. L., Fischman D. L., Waller R. W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306: 1783–1786
Wake D. B., Vredenburg V. T. 2008. Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105: 11466–11473
Wang B., Jiang J., Xie F., Chen X., Dubois A., Liang G., Wagner S. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and genetic identification of populations of two species of Feirana frogs (Amphibia: Anura, Ranidae, Dicroglossinae, Paini) endemic to China. Zool Sci, 26: 500–509
Webb T. J., Gaston K. J. 2003. On the heritability of geographic range sizes. Am Nat, 161: 553–566
Xie F., Lau M., Stuart S., Chanson J., Cox N., Fischman D. 2007. Conservation needs of amphibians in China: A review. Sci Chin Ser C-Life Sci, 50: 265–276
Yang D., Rao D. 2008. Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan. Kunming: Yunnan Science and Technology Press
Yang X., Wang B., Hu J., Jiang J. 2011. A new species of the genus Feirana (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) from the Western Qinling Mountains of China. Asian Herpetol Res, 2: 72–86
Zeisset I., Beebee T. J. C. 2008. Amphibian phylogeography: A model for understanding historical aspects of species distributions. Heredity, 101: 109–119
Zhang R. 2011. Zoogeography of China. Beijing: Science Press
Zhao E., Adler K. 1993. Herpetology of China. Oxford: USA Society for the Amphibians and Reptiles
Zhou F., Jiang A., Jiang D. 2006. A new species of the genus Hynobius from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Caudata, Hynobiidae). Acta Zootaxon Sin, 31: 670–674

更新日期/Last Update: 2016-03-15