[1].Advertisement Call Variability in the Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae) during the Breeding Season in Lishui, Zhejiang, China[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2012,3(2):157-162.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2012.00157]
 Li WEI,Lihua ZHAO,et al.Advertisement Call Variability in the Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae) during the Breeding Season in Lishui, Zhejiang, China[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2012,3(2):157-162.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2012.00157]

Advertisement Call Variability in the Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae) during the Breeding Season in Lishui, Zhejiang, China()

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

Original Article


Advertisement Call Variability in the Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae) during the Breeding Season in Lishui, Zhejiang, China
Li WEI1 2 Lihua ZHAO1 Xiaohao MA1 Xiaoli FAN2 Xiaomei MA1 and Zhihua LIN2*
1 School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, Zhejiang, China
2 College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang, China
Anura vocalization Bufo melanostictus acoustic parameters advertisement call artificial pond
Advertisement calls play an important role in influencing female mate choice and are regarded as one of the key characters responsible for reproductive isolation and speciation events in frogs and toads. The black-spined toad, Bufo melanostictus, is one of the most common amphibians in Southeast Asia and is frequently observed in human habitations throughout its distributional range. The advertisement calls of the toad have not been well described. Here, we report the advertisement calls of this species from Lishui, Zhejiang, China during its breeding season. The advertisement calls of B. melanostictus are composed of single notes with a single harmonic frequency emitted sporadically. The call parameters recorded in this study were highly variable across recording times and with different body sizes. Dominant frequency was negatively correlated with body size. Comparing the calls of the B. melanostictus population from Lishui with the populations from five other localities (Bangkok, Thailand; Coorg, India; Burma, Myanmar; Bali, Indonesia; Halimun-Salak National Park, Indonesia), we found that call structure was similar among five different populations with no harmonics, while the Halimun-Salak National Park population contained two clear harmonics. Dominant frequency was similar between Bali (1.56 kHz) and Coorg (1.6 kHz) populations, while it was highly variable among other populations. Besides call duration, call interval and pulse/call rate may also be significantly different among the comparing populations. Pooling the available data, we observed some similarities and differences in call parameters among the six populations.


Bilate M., Lack E. 2011. The advertisement call of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952) (Amphibia, Anura). S Am J Herpetol, 6: 54–58
Chen Q., Cui J. G., Fang G. Z., Brauth S. E., Tang Y. Z. 2011. An acoustic analysis of the advertisement calls of the Music Frog, Babina daunchina. J Herpetol, 45(4): 406–416
Cocroft R. B., Ryan M. J. 1995. Patterns of advertisement call evolution in toads and chorus frogs. Anim Behav, 49: 283–303
Cui J. G., Song X. Y., Fang G. Z., Xu F., Brauth S. E., Tang Y. Z. 2011. Circadian rhythm of calling behavior in Emei Music Frog (Babina daunchina) is associated with habitat temperature and relative humidity. Asian Herpetol Res, 3: 149–154
Cui J. G., Tang Y. Z., Narins P. M. 2012. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: Female preference for calls emanating from burrows. Biol Lett (In press), DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.1091
Dubois A. L., Nowicki S., Searcy W. A. 2009. Swamp sparrows modulate vocal performance in an aggressive context. Biol Lett, 5: 163–165
Duellman W. E., Trueb L. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. New York: McGraw-Hill
Fei L., Hu S. Q., Ye C. Y., Huang Y. Z. 2009. Fauna Sinica Amphibia, Vol. 2, Anura. Beijing: Science Press
Feio R. N., Santos P. S., Cassini C. S., Dayrell J. S., Oliveira E. F. 2008. Anfibios da Serra do Brigadeiro. MG-Biota, l(l): 4–31
Gerhardt H. C., Brooks R. 2009. Experimental analysis of multivariate female choice in Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor): Evidence for directional and stabilizing selection. Evolution, 63: 2504–2512
Gerhardt H. C., Davis M. S. 1988. Variation in the coding of species identify in the advertisement calls of Litoria verreauxi (Anura: Hylidae). Evolution, 42: 556–563
Gerhardt H. C. 1994. The evolution of vocalization in frogs and toads. Annu Rev Ecol S, 25: 293–324
Giacoma C., Zugolaro C., Beani L. 1997. The advertisement calls of the green toad Bufo viridis: Variability and role in mate choice. Herpetologica, 53: 454–464
Hampson K., Bennet D. 2002. Advertisement calls of amphibians at Lackunda Estate, Coorg, Karnataka. In Bennet D. (Ed.), Frogs of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Glossop: Viper Press, 121–135
Hernández M., Alonso R., Rodríguez A. 2010. Advertisement call of Peltophryne florentinoi (Anura: Bufonidae), an endemic toad from Zapata Swamp, Cuba. Amphibia-Reptilia, 31: 265–272
Heyer W. R. 1971. Mating calls of some frogs from Thailand. Fieldiana (Zool), 58: 61–82
Howard R. D., Young J. R. 1998. Individual variation in male vocal traits and female mating preferences in Bufo americanus. Anim Behav, 55: 1165–1179
Iskandar D. T. 1998. The amphibians of Java and Bali. Indonesia: Research and Development Centre for Biology, 117 pp
Jiang J. P., Xie F., Fei L., Ye C. Y., Zheng M. 2002. Mating calls of six forms of pleobatid in Wawu Mountain National Forest Park, Sichuan, China (Anura: Pelobatidae). Zool Res, 23: 89–94
Jiang S. R., Ding P., Zhuge Y. 1995. The comparative study on the characteristics of calling songs of three frog species. Zool Res, 16: 75–81 (In Chinese with English abstract)
Kurniati H., Sumadijaya A., Boonman A., Laksono W. T. 2010. Ecology, distribution and bio-acoustic of amphibians in degraded habitat. Ristek-Dikti Incentive Program (Cibinong, Indonesian). Retrieved from http://www.biologi.lipi.go.id/bio bidang/file doc bidang/Report of Ristek-Dikti-LIPi Incentive Project 2010.pdf
Leary C. J., Garcia A. M., Knapp R. 2008. Density-dependent mating tactic expression is linked to stress hormone in Woodhoused’s toad. Behav Ecol, 19: 1103–1110
Márquez R., Eekhout X. R. 2006. Advertisement calls of six species of anurans from Bali, Republic of Indonesia. J Nat Hist, 40: 571–588
Navas C., Bevier C. R. 2001. Thermal dependency of calling performance in the eurythermic frog Colostethus subpunctatus. Herpetologica, 57: 384–395
Pough F. H., Andrews R. M., Cadle J. E., Crump M. L., Savitzky A. H., Wells K. D. 2004. Herpetology, 3rd Ed. London: Pearson Education Ins
Pr?hl H. 2003. Variation in male calling behaviour and relation to male mating success in the Strawberry Poison Frog (Dendrobates pumilio). Ethology, 109: 273–290
Robillard T., H?bel G., Gerhardt H. C. 2006. Evolution of advertisement signals in North American hylid frogs: Vocalizations as end-products of calling behaviour. Cladistics, 22: 533–545
Ryan M., Tuttle A. S., Rand S. A. 1982. Bat predation and sexual advertisement in a neotropical anuran. Am Nat, 119: 136–139
Shen J. X., Feng A. S., Xu Z. M., Yu Z. L., Arch V. S., Yu X. J., Narins P. M. 2008. Ultrasonic frogs show hyperacute phonotaxis to female courtship calls. Nature, 453: 914–917
Tobias M. L., Barnard C., O’Hagan R., Horng S. H., Rand M., Kelley D. B. 2004. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis. Anim Behav, 67: 353–365
Tobias M. L., Corke A., Korsh J., Yin D., Kelley D. B. 2010. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 64: 1791–1803
Tobias M. L., Evans B. J., Kelley D. B. 2011. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs. Behaviour, 148: 519–549
Wei L., Lin Z. H., Ma X. M., Zhao L. H., Ma X. H. 2011. Acoustic characteristics of the tiger frog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, during the breeding season. Zool Res, 32: 456–460
Welch A. M., Semlitsch R. D., Gerhardt H. C. 1998. Call duration as an indicator of genetic quality in male gray tree frogs. Science, 280: 1928–1930
Wells K. D. 1977. The social behavior of anuran amphibians. Anim Behav, 25: 666–693
Wogan G. O. U., Win H., Thin T., Lwin K. S., Shein A. K., Kyi S. W., Tun H. 2003. A new species of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) from Myanmar (Burma), and redescription of the little known species Bufo stuarti Smith 1929. Proc California Acad Sci, 141–153
Xu J. X., Xie F., Jiang J. P., Mo Y. M., Zheng Z. H. 2005. The acoustic features of the mating call of 12 anuran species. Chin J Zool, 40: 12–19 (In Chinese with English abstract)
Yu B. G., Zheng R. Q. 2009. The advertisement call of the giant spiny frog Paa spinosa. Curr Zool, 55: 411–415

更新日期/Last Update: 2016-03-15