[1].Age Structure of Females in a Breeding Population of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae) and Its Conservation Implication[J].Asian Herpetological Research,2011,2(2):91-96.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00091]
 Weizhao YANG,Chang LIU,Jianping JIANG,et al.Age Structure of Females in a Breeding Population of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae) and Its Conservation Implication[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2011,2(2):91-96.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00091]

Age Structure of Females in a Breeding Population of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae) and Its Conservation Implication()

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

Original Article


Age Structure of Females in a Breeding Population of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae) and Its Conservation Implication
Weizhao YANG12 Chang LIU1 Jianping JIANG1 Cheng LI1 and Feng XIE1*
1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China
2 The Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
skeletochronology age structure sexual maturity fecundity clutch size
Knowledge of life history is important for understanding possible connections to population declines. Here, we investigated the female age structure and fecundity of Echinotriton chinhaiensis, one of the most endangered salamanders in the world, using skeletochronology based on specimens collected in 2008 and 2009 from a population in Ruiyansi, northeast of Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. The results showed that most female salamanders were between 5 and 6 years of age, with the minimal reproductive age, predicted to be 3 years, and the clutch size correlated to the body size. We argue that both delayed attainment of sexual maturity and low fecundity make this species more vulnerable to extinction.


Begon M., Harper J. L., Townsend C. R. 1990. Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities, London: Blackwell Scientific Publications
Blanchard F. N., Blanchard F. C. 1931. Size groups and their characteristics in the salamander Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel). Am Nat, 65: 149-164
Burrowes P. A., Joglar R. L., Green D. E. 2004. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Herpetologica, 60: 141-154
Castanet J., Smirina E. 1990. Introduction to the skeletochronalogy method in amphibians and reptiles. Ann des Sci Nat (Zool). 11: 191-196
Davies N. B., Halliday T. R. 1977. Optimal mate selection in the toad Bufo bufo. Nature, 269: 56-58.
Duellman W. E., Trueb L. 1986. Biology of amphibians. Baltimore, MD: McGraw-Hill Publication Co.
Evans K., Hindell M. A. 2004. The age structure and growth of female sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in southern Australian waters. J Zool (Lond), 263: 237-250
Ferner J. W. 1979. A review of marking techniques for amphibians and reptiles. SSAR (USA) Herpetol Circ, 1979(9): 1-27
Forester D. D., Lykens D. V. 1991. Age structure in a population of red spotted newts from the Allegheny Plateau of Maryland. J Herpetol, 25: 373-376
Gibbons M. M., McCarthy T. K. 1986. The reproductive output of frogs Rana temporaria (L.) with particular reference to body size and age. J Zool (Lond), 209: 579-593
Halliday T. R., Verrell P. A. 1988. Body size and age in amphibians and reptiles. J Herpetol, 22: 253-265
Hemelaar A. S. M. 1988. Age, growth and other population characteristics of Bufo bufo from different latitudes and altitudes. J Herpetol, 22: 369-388
Holmes E. E., York A. E. 2003. Using age structure to detect impacts on threatened population: A case study with Steller Sea Lions. Cons Biol, 17: 1794-1806
Houlahan J. E., Findlay C. S., Schmidt B R., Meyer A. H., Kuzmin S. L. 2000. Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature, 404: 752-755
Jennings S., Reynolds J.D., Polunin N. V. C. 1999. Prediction the vulnerability of tropical reef fishes to exploitation with phylogenies and life histories. Cons Biol, 13: 1466-1475
Joly P., Grolet O. 1996. Colonization dynamics of new ponds and the age structure of colonizing alpine newts, Triturus alpestris. Acta Oecol, 17: 599-608
Khonsue W., Chaiananporn T., Pomchote P. 2010. Skeletochronological assessment of age in the Himalayan Crocodile Newt, Tylototriton verrucosus (Anderson, 1871) from Thailand. Trop Nat Hist, 10(2): 181-188
Kusano T., Fukuyama K., Miyashita N. 1995. Age determination of the stream frog, Rana sakuraii, by skeletochronology. J Herpetol, 29: 625-628
Kutrup B., Bulbul U., Yilmaz N. 2005. Age structure in two populations of Triturus vittatus ophryticus at different altitudes. Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 49-54
Li Y. M. 2003. Population viability analysis in conservation biology: Precision and uses. Biodiv Sci, 11(4): 340-350
Liao W. B. 2009. Elevational variation in the life-history of anurans in a montane region, southwestern China. Ph. D. dissertation of Wuhan University
Liu C., Xie F., Jiang J. P., Zheng Z. H., Liu X. T., Liu Y., Wu M. F. 2010. Annual reproduction comparision and analysis of Chinhai Salamander (Echinotriton chinhaiensis) Ruiyansi population. Sichuan J Zool, 29(1): 24-26, 30
Lu X., Li B., Liang J. J. 2006. Comparative demography of a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient. Can J Zool, 84: 1789-1795
Morrison F. C., Hero J. M., Browning J. 2004. Altitudinal variation in the age at maturity, longevity, and reproductive lifespan of anurans in subtropical Queensland. Herpetologica, 60: 34-44
Phillott A., Skerratt L., McDonald K., Lemckert F., Hines H., Clarke J., Alford R., Speare R. 2008. Toe clipping of anurans for mark-recapture studies: acceptable if justified. That’s what we said. Herpetol Rev, 39(2): 149-150.
Pounds J. A., Fogden M. P. L., Campbell J. H. 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature, 398: 611-615
Ron S. R., Duellman W. E., Coloma L. A. 2003. Population decline of the Jambato Toad Atelopus ignescens (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Andes of Ecuador. J Herpetol, 37: 116-126
Roy D., Mushahidunnabi M. 2001. Courtship, mating and egg-laying in Tylototriton verrucosus from the Darjeeling district of the Eastern Himalaya. Cur Sci, 81(6): 693-695
Rozenblut B., Ogielska M. 2005. Development and growth of long bones in European water frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), with remarks on age determination. J Morphol, 265: 304-317
Sadovy Y. 2001. The threat of fishing to highly fecund fishes. J Fish Biol (Suppl A), 59: 90-108
Sequeira F., Ferrand N., Crespo E. G. 2003. Reproductive cycle of the golden-striped salamander Chioglossa lusitanica (Caudata, Salamandridae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 24: 1-12
Smirina E. M. 1994. Age determination and longevity in amphibians. Gerontology, 40: 133-146
Steams S. C., Koella J. C. 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits. I. Predictions of norms of reaction norms for age and size at maturity. Evolution, 40: 893-913
Stuart S. N., Chanson J. S., Cox N. A., Young B. E., Rodrigues A. S. L., Fischman D. L., Waller R. W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306: 1783-1786
Sun R. 2001. Principles of Animal Ecology. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press
Wake D. B. 1991. Declining amphibian populations. Science, 253(5022): 860
Xie F. 1999. Study on the population ecology and genetic structure of the Chinhai Salamander, Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamanderidae). Ph.D. dissertation of Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Xie F., Fei L., Ye C. Y., Cai C., Wang Z., Sparreboom M. 2000. Breeding migration and oviposition of the Chinhai Salamander, Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudate: Salamanderidae). Herpetol J, 10 (3): 111-118
Zug G. R. 1993. Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. San Diego, California: Academic Press

更新日期/Last Update: 2016-03-15