Zening CHEN,Shengchao SHI,Jun GAO,et al.A New Species of Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwestern China, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2021,12(2):1-11.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.200084]
Click Copy

A New Species of Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwestern China, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar
Share To:

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

2021 VoI.12 No.02
Research Field:
Publishing date:


A New Species of Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwestern China, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar
Zening CHEN12# Shengchao SHI12# Jun GAO34 Gernot VOGEL5 Zhaobin SONG1 Li DING2* and Rong DAI34*
1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, China
2 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China
3 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
4 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Biosafety, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
5 Society for Southeast Asian Herpetology, Im Sand 3, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany
morphology phylogenetics taxonomy Trimeresurus
The pit vipers of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 is one of the largest groups of Asian snakes, distributed from India to China and Indonesia. Recent surveys in Jiangcheng and Simao, Yunnan Province, China resulted in a new species previously allocated to T. albolabris. Combining morphological and molecular data, we describe it as Trimeresurus guoi sp. nov. The new species morphologically differs from T. albolabris in the yellow green ventral color; an indistinct ventrolateral line; the absence of a postocular stripe; the firebrick-red iris; a dark red stripe on dorsal tail; hemipenes with relatively weak sparse papillae, reaching 23rd subcaudal when unextruded. Molecularly, the new species forms a clearly divergent lineage (BPP 1.00/ UFB 100). Uncorrected pairwise distances of mitochondrial gene Cyt b between the new species and other known species of the subgenus Trimeresurus range from 0.052 (T. albolabris) to 0.071 (T. insularis).


Blyth E. 1846. Notes on the fauna of the Nicobar Islands. J Asiatic Soc Bengal, 15: 367–379
Burbrink F. T, Lawson R., Slowinski J. B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the polytypic North American rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Evolution, 54: 2107–2118
Chen Z. N, Zhang L., Shi J. S., Tang Y. Z., Guo Y. H., Song Z. B., Ding L. 2019. A new species of the genus Trimeresurus from Southwest China (Squamata: Viperidae), Asian Herpetol Res, 10(1): 13–23
Chen Z. N., Yu J., Vogel G., Shi S. C., Song Z. B., Tang Y. Z., Yang J., Song Z. B., Ding L., Chen C. S. 2020. A new pit viper of the genus Trimeresurus (Lacépède, 1804) from Southwest China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa, 4768(1): 112–128
David P., Ineich I. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et répartition. Dumerilia, Paris, 3: 3–499
David P., Petri M., Vogel G., Doria G. 2009. A new species of pitviper of the genus Trimeresurus (Popeia) from northern Sumatra (Reptilia, Squamata, Viperidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria”, 100: 323–346
David P., Vogel G., Vidal N. 2003. On Trimeresurus fasciatus (Boulenger, 1896) (Serpentes: Crotalidae), with a discussion on its relationships based on morphological and molecular data. Raffles B Zool, 51: 149–157
David P., Vogel G., Sumontha M., Pauwels O. S. G., Chanhome L. 2004. Expanded description of the poorly known pitviper Trimeresurus kanburiensis Smith, 1943, with confirmation of the validity of Trimeresurus venustus Vogel, 1991 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Crotalidae). Russ J Herpetol, 11:81–90
Dowling H. G. 1951. A proposed standard system of counting ventrals in snakes. Brit J Herpetol, 1:97–99
Figueroa A., Mckelvy A. D., Grismer L. L., Bell C. D., Lailvaux S. P. 2016. A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus. Plos One, 11, 1–31
Giannasi N., Thorpe R. S., Malhotra A. 2001. The use of amplified fragment length polymorphism in determining species trees at fine taxonomic levels: analysis of a medically important snake, Trimeresurus albolabris. Mol Ecol, 10: 419–426
Gray J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of rattle-snakes, or family of Crotalidae. Zool Misc, 2: 47–51
Grismer L. L., Grismer J. L., McGuire J. A. 2006. A new species of pit viper of the genus Popeia (Squamata: Viperidae) from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Zootaxa, 1305, 1–19
Gumprecht A., Tillack F., Orlov N., Captain A., Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pit vipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368
Guo P., Zhang F. 2001. Comparative studies on hemipenes of four species of Trimeresurus (sensu stricto) (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 22: 113–117
Guo P., Liu Q., Zhong G., Zhu F., Yan F., Tang T., Xiao R. 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pit vipers in Yunnan, south-west China (Squamata, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 36: 265–276
Hoang D. T., Chernomor O., von Haeseler A., Minh B. Q., Le S. V. 2017. UFBoot2: Improving the ultrafast bootstrap approximation. Mol Biol Evol, 35: 518–522
Huelsenbeck J. P., Ronquist F., Nielsen R., Bollback J. P. 2001. Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science, 294: 2310–2314
Knight A., Mindell D. P. 1993. Substitution Bias, Weighting of DNA Sequence Evolution, and the Phylogenetic Position of Fea’s Viper. Syst Biol, 42:18–31
Knowles L. L., Carstens B. C. 2007. Delimiting species without monophyletic gene trees. Syst Biol, 56: 887–895
Kramer E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Rev Suisse Zool, 84: 721–761
Kuhl H. 1824. Sur les reptiles de Java. Extrait d’une lettre adressée de Java en Hollande, par M. Kuhl, datée de Pjihorjavor au pied du Pangerango, le 18 juillet 1821 (Algem. Konst en Letterbode; 1822). Bulletin des Sciences naturelles et de Géologie (Section II du Bulletin Universel des Sciences naturelles), Paris, 2: 79–83
Kumar S., Steche G., Tamura K. 2016. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. Mol Biol Evol, 33: 1870
Lacépède B. G. E. 1804. Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle Hollande dont la description n’a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, 4:184–211, pls 55–58
Lanfear R., Calcott B., Ho S. Y. W., Guindon S. 2012. Partition Finder: combined selection of partitioning schemes and substitution models for phylogenetic analyses. Mol Biol Evol, 29: 1695–1701
Liu W. J. 2000. Impact of climatic variation on net primary productivity of natural vegetation in Xishuangbanna in recent 40 years. J Mt Sci-Engl, 4: 296–300 [In Chinese]
Malhotra A., Thorpe R. S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pit vipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Mol Phylogenet Evol, 32: 83–100
McKelvy A. D., Burbrink F. T. 2017. Ecological divergence in the yellow-bellied kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster) at two North American biodiversity hotspots. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 106: 61–72
Mirza Z. A., Bhosale H. S., Phansalkar P. U., Sawant M., Gowande G. G., Patel H. 2020. A new species of green pit vipers of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Viperidae) from western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Zoosyst Evol, 96(1): 123–138①
Nguyen L. T., Schmidt H. A., von Haeseler A., Minh B. Q. 2015. IQ-TREE: A fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol, 32: 268–274
Parkinson C. L., Zamudio K. R., Greene H. W. 2000. Phylogeography of the pit viper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, Species status, and conservation of cantils. Mol Evol, 9: 411–420
Pope C. H., Pope S. H. 1933. A study of the green pit-vipers of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, commonly identified as Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw), with description of a new species from Peninsular India. Am Mus Novit, 620: 1–12
Pyron R. A., Kandambi H. K., Hendry C. R., Pushpamal V., Burbrink F. T., Somaweera R. 2013. Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 66: 969–978
Regenass U., Kramer E. 1981. Zur Systematik der grünen Grubenottern der Gattung Trimeresurus (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Rev Suisse Zool, 88: 163–205
Ronquist F., Teslenko M., Mark P. V. D., Ayres D., Darling A., Hohna S., Larget B., Liu L., Suchard M. A., Huelsenbeck J. P. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Syst Biol, 61: 539–542
Sanders K. L., Malhotra A., Thorpe R. S. 2006. Combining molecular, morphological and ecological data to infer species boundaries in a cryptic tropical pit viper. Biol J Linn Soc, 87: 343–364
Schlick-Steiner B. C., Steiner F. M., Seifert B., Stauffer C., Christian E., Crozier R. H. 2010. Integrative Taxonomy: a multisource approach to exploring biodiversity. Annu Rev Entomol, 55: 421–438
Sharma S. K., Pandey D. P., Shah K. B., Tillach F., Chappuis F., Thapa C. L., Alirol E., Kuch U. 2013. Venomous Snakes of Nepal: A Photographic Guide. B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 71 pp
Smith M. A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, including the whole of the Indo-Chinese subregion. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III, Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London, xii + 583 pp
Stamatakis A., Hoover P., Rougemont J. 2008. A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RaxML web-servers. Syst Biol, 75: 758–771
Sumontha M., Kunya K., Pauwels O. S. G., Nitikul A., Punnadee S. 2011. Trimeresurus (Popeia) phuketensis, a new pit viper (Squamata: Viperidae) from Phuket island, southwestern Thailand. Russ J Herpetol, 18: 185–194
Taylor E. H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 45: 609–1096
Theobald W. 1868. Catalogue of Reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1866. J As Soc Bengal, 88: i-iii + 88 pp, pls 1–4
Uetz P., Freed P., Ho?k J. 2019. The Reptile Database, Retrieved from http://www.reptile-database.org
Vijayakumar S. P., David P. 2006. Taxonomy, Natural History, and Distribution of the Snakes of the Nicobar Islands (INDIA), based on new materials and with an Emphasis on endemic species. Russ J Herpetol, 13:11–40
Vogel G. 1991. Eine neue Trimeresurus-Art aus Thailand, Trimeresurus venustus sp. nov. (Reptilia: Serpentes: Crotalidae). Sauria, 13: 23–28
Vogel G., David P., Chandramouli S. R. 2014. On the systematics of Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867, a pitviper from the Nicobar Islands (India), with ridation of Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870 (Squamata, Viperidae, Crotalinae). Zootaxa, 3786: 557–573
Vogel G., David P., Pauwels O. S. G. 2004. A review of morphological variation in Trimeresurus popeiorum (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa, 727: 1–61
Warrell D. A., Looareesuwan S., Stimson A. F., Hutton R. A. 1992. Rediscovery and redefinition of Malcolm Smith’s Trimeresurus kanburiensis in Thailand, with a report of envenoming. T Roy Soc Trop Med H, 86: 95
Wilcox T. P., Zwickl D. J., Heath T. A., Hillis D. M. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the Dwarf Boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic support. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 25: 361–371
Wostl E., Sidik I., Trilaksono W., Shaney K. J., Kurniawan N., Smith E. N. 2016. Taxonomic Status of the Sumatran Pitviper Trimeresurus (Popeia) toba David, Petri, Vogel and Doria, 2009 (Squamata: Viperidae) and Other Sunda Shelf Species of the Subgenus Popeia. J Herpetol, 50: 633–641
Xu Z. Y., Sun W., Luo S. B., Li Y., Jiang H. R. 2007. The variation characteristics for temperature of 3 cities of Guangdong province in the past one hundred years. J South China Norm Univ (Nat Sci Edi), 2: 137–142 [In Chinese]
Yang D. T., Rao D. Q. 2008. Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, 365–366 pp [In Chinese]
Zhao E. M. 2006. Snakes of China. Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, Hefei, 139–140 pp [In Chinese]
Zhao E. M., Huang M. H., Zong Y. 1998. Fauna Sinica, Reptilia, Squamata. Serpentes, Vol. 3. Science Press, Beijing, 445–451 pp [In Chinese]
Zhao E. M., Yang D. T. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Hengduan Mountains Region. Science Press, Beijing, 286–286 pp [In Chinese]
Zhu F., Liu Q., Che J., Zhang L., Chen X., Yan F. 2016. Molecular phylogeography of white-lipped tree viper (Trimeresurus; Viperidae). Zool Scr, 45: 252–262


Last Update: 2021-03-29