Shouhong WANG,Lanying ZHAO,Lusha LIU,et al.A Complete Embryonic Developmental Table of Microhyla fissipes (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae)[J].Asian Herpetological Reserch(AHR),2017,8(2):108-117.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.170006]
Click Copy

A Complete Embryonic Developmental Table of Microhyla fissipes (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae)
Share To:

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

2017 VoI.8 No.2
Research Field:
Publishing date:


A Complete Embryonic Developmental Table of Microhyla fissipes (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae)
Shouhong WANG12 Lanying ZHAO12 Lusha LIU1 Dengwei YANG1 Janak Raj KHATIWADA12 Bin WANG1 and Jianping JIANG1*
1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Microhylidae embryonic stage external characters morphogenesis
Access to embryonic developmental stages is essential basic work for understanding how organisms develop. In this study, seven egg clutches (range 209–564 eggs) of ornamented pygmy frog Microhyla fissipes (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae) were obtained from seven breeding pairs in laboratory. One egg clutch of them was observed for the embryonic development, and the staging table of normal development was constructed based on morphological and physiological characteristics. Forty-five developmental stages were defined for M. fissipes, and two major developmental periods were designated: 1) early embryonic development period (stages 1–28), from fertilization to operculum completion stage, lasted for 82.6 hours at water temperature (WT) 23–25oC; 2) larval development period (stages 29–45), from operculum completion to tail complete absorption stage, took 38 days at WT 22–26.5oC, showing that the embryos of this species develop rapidly. In addition, the tadpoles were transparent, which is similar to those in field. These characteristics suggest that M. fissipes would be a good model to study developmental biology, adaptive mechanisms from aquatic to terrestrial phases, environmental toxicology, and human disease.


Amin N. M., Womble M., Ledon-Rettig C., Hull M., Dickinson A., Nascone-Yoder N. 2015. Budgett’s frog (Lepidobatrachus laevis): A new amphibian embryo for developmental biology. Dev Biol, 405(2): 291–303
Bowatte G., Meegaskumbura M. 2011. Morphology and ecology of Microhyla rubra (Anura: Microhylidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka. Amph Reptile Conserv, 5(2): 22–32
Fabrezi M., Quinzio S., Goldberg J., De Sá R. O. 2012. The Development of Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae: Gastrophryninae). J Herpetol, 46: 363–380
Fei L., Hu S. Q., Ye C. Y., Huang Y. Z. 2009. Fauna of China: Amphibians. Beijing: Science Press, 904–910 (In Chinese)
Frost D. R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (Date of access). American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Retrieved from (Assesses on Jan 10, 2017)
Geng B. R., Wen Q., Zhang Q. J. 1995. Early embryonic development in Microhyla ornata. Chin J Zool, 31(5): 17–21 (In Chinese)
Gosner K. L. 1960. A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, 16(3): 183–190
Grenat P. R., Gallo L. M. Z., Salas N. E., Martino A. 2011. External changes in embryonic and larval development of Odontophrynus cordobae Martino et Sinsch, 2002 (Anura: Cycloramphidae). Biologia, 66(6): 1148–1158
Hirsch N., Zimmerman L. B., Grainger R. M. 2002. Xenopus, the next generation: X. tropicalis genetics and genomics. Dev Dynam, 225(4): 422–433
Hurney C. A., Babcock S. K., Shook D. R., Pelletier T. M., Turner S. D., Maturo J., Cogbill S., Snow M. C., Kinch K. 2015. Normal table of embryonic development in the four-toed salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum. Mech Develop, 136(2015): 99–110
Iwasawa H., Futagami J. 1992. Normal stages of development of a tree frog, Hyla japonica Günther. Japan J Herpetol, 14(3): 129–142
Kouba A. J., Vance C. K., Willis E. L. 2009. Artificial fertilization for amphibian conservation: current knowledge and future considerations. Theriogenology, 71(1): 214–227
Liu L. S., Zhao L. Y., Wang S. H., Jiang J. P. 2016. Research proceedings on amphibian model organisms. Zool Res, 37(4): 237–245
Liu S. L., Song Z. M., Zhang J. Z., He M. Y., Zhu Q., Li Y. 1995. Early embryonic development in Microhyla ornata. J Sichuan Univ, 33(3): 323–329 (In Chinese)
Matsui M., Ito H., Shimada T., Ota H., Saidapur S. K., Khonsue W., Tanaka T., Wu G. F. 2005. Taxonomic relationships within the Pan-Oriental narrow-mouth toad Microhyla ornata as revealed by mtDNA analysis (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae). Zool Sci, 22(4): 489–495
Mohammad Ridzuan A. S. B. 2013. Staging of late larval developmental stages of the microhylid frog, microhyla nepenthicola (anura: microhylidae). Bachelor Thesis. University of Malaysia Sarawak. 24 pp
Mohanty-Hejmadi P., Dutta S. K., Khan I. 1980. Life history of the Indian frogs. III. The ornate frog, Microhyla ornata. J Zool Soc India, 32 (1–2): 43–48
Narzary J., Bordoloi S. 2013. Study of normal development and external morphology of tadpoles of Microhyla ornata and Uperodon globulosus of the family Microhylidae (Amphibia: Anura) from North East India. Int J Adv Biol Res, 3(1): 61–73
Nieuwkoop P. D., Faber J. 1967. Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin). North Holland Press, Amsterdam
Padhye A. D., Ghate H. V. 1989. Preliminary photographic record and description of various developmental stages of the frog Microhyla ornate (Duméril and Birbon). Herpetological (Pune, India), 2: 2–7
Pollister A. W., Moore J. A. 1937. Tables for the normal development of Rana sylvatica. Anat Rec, 68(4): 489–496
Rao C. R. N. 1917. On the occurrence of irridocyte in the larva of M. ornata (Boulenger). Rec. Indian Mus, 13(XIII): 281–262
Shimizu S., Ota H. 2003. Normal development of Microhyla ornata: the first description of the complete embryonic and larval stages for the microhylid frogs (Amphibia: Anura). Curr Herpetol, 22(2): 73–90
Shumway W. 1940. Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens I. External form. Anat Rec, 78(2): 139–147
Taylor A. C., Kollros J. J. 1946. Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens larvae. Anat Rec, 94(1): 7–23
Werner E. E. 1986. Amphibian metamorphosis: growth rate, predation risk, and the optimal size at transformation. Am Nat, 128(3): 319–341
Xiong R. C., Jiang J. P., Fei L., Wang B., Ye C. Y. 2010. Embryonic development of the concave-eared torrent frog with its significance on taxonomy. Zool Res, 31(5): 490–498
Xu M. Y., Xu J. 2012. Preliminary observations on postembryonic development of Microhyla ornata in North Guangdong. Sichuan J Zool, 31(4): 589–593
Zhao L. Y., Liu L. S., Wang S. H., Wang H. Y., Jiang J. P. 2016. Transcriptome profiles of metamorphosis in the ornamented pygmy frog Microhyla fissipes clarify the functions of thyroid hormone receptors in metamorphosis. Sci Rep, 6: 27310


Last Update: 2017-06-25