Xiaoxiao SHU,Wei ZHANG,Ben LI,et al.Major Factors Affecting the Distribution of Anuran Communities in the Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas of Shanghai, China[J].Asian Herpetological Reserch(AHR),2016,7(4):287-294.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.150069]
Click Copy

Major Factors Affecting the Distribution of Anuran Communities in the Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas of Shanghai, China
Share To:

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:1006-6977/CN:61-1281/TN]

2016 VoI.7 No.4
Research Field:
Publishing date:


Major Factors Affecting the Distribution of Anuran Communities in the Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas of Shanghai, China
Xiaoxiao SHU1Wei ZHANG1 Ben LI1 Enle PEI2 Xiao YUAN2 Tianhou WANG1* and Zhenghuan WANG1*
1 School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
2 Shanghai Landscaping and City Appearance Administrative Bureau, Shanghai 200040, China
subtropical regions rapid urbanization amphibian habitat variable breeding seasons
There is a dearth of information on the effects of landscape and microhabitat variables on the distribution of anurans in areas of rapid urban development, in both tropical and subtropical regions. Therefore, we studied 24 wetlands sites from the center of Shanghai city, China extending outward to rural areas. Sampling was performed from May through July 2014. Urbanization was categorized by the proportion of hard ground cover. Transect sampling and ‘calling’ surveys were used to investigated the richness and density of anurans; microhabitat factors were recorded simultaneously. One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted to analyze differences of total density, species richness and density of individual anuran species in the three urbanization levels; redundancy analysis was carried out on the relationship between anuran density and environmental variables. Species richness was lowest in the areas where the proportion of hard ground cover was > 80%, and the total density of anurans was highest in the areas where coverage of the hard ground cover was < 30%. We recorded five species belonging to four genera and four families and an individual anuran species that had varied representations in urban environments. Beijing gold-striped pond frogs (Pelophylax plancyi) and Zhoushan toads (Bufo gargarizans) appeared to be well adapted to the Shanghai metropolis. Large water environments and aquatic vegetation (floating-leaves and emergent vegetation) were indicators of the presence of Beijing gold-striped pond frogs. The density of black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) was at the lowest density in the areas where hard ground coverage was > 80%, and tended to prefer larger bodies of water. Hong Kong rice-paddy frogs (Fejervarya multistriata) and ornamented pygmy frogs (Microhyla achatina) both suffered severely from cropland loss due to urban development. Bare land around breeding grounds was important for Hong Kong rice-paddy frogs, since it usually chooses mud coast caves for hibernation.


An N., Gao N. Y., Liu C. E. 2008. Wetland degradation in China: Causes, evaluation, and protection measures. Chin J Ecol, 27: 821–828
Brown J. H., Kodric-Brown A. 1977. Turnover rates in insular biogeography: Effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology,?58: 445–449
Boone M. D., Bridges C. M. 2003. Effects of pesticides on amphibian populations. In Semlitsch R. D. (Ed.), Amphibian Conservation. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 152–167
Bengtsson G., Tranvik L. 1989. Critical metal concentrations for forest soil invertebrates. Water Air Soil Pollut, 47: 381–417
Czech B., Paul R. K., Patrick K. D. 2000. Economic Associations among Causes of Species Endangerment in the United States reflect the integration of economic sectors, supporting the theory and evidence that economic growth proceeds at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate.?BioScience,?50: 593–601
Carrier J. A., Beebee T. J. C. 2003. Recent, substantial, and unexplained declines of the common toad Bufo bufo in lowland England. Biol Conserv,?111: 395–399
Clark P. J., Reed J. M., Tavernia B. G., Windmiller B. S., Regosin J. V. 2008. Urbanization effects on spotted salamander and wood frog presence and abundance for the study of amphibians and reptiles. University of Waterloo
Corn P. S., Muths E. 2002. Variable breeding phenology affects the exposure of amphibian embryos to ultraviolet radiation. Ecology,?83: 2958–2963
Collins J. P., Kinzig A., Grimm N. B., Fagan W. F., Hope D., Wu J. 2000. A new urban ecology. Am Sci, 88: 416–425
Clergeau P., Savard J. P. L., Mennechez G., Falardeau G. 1998. Bird abundance and diversity along an urban–rural gradient: A comparative study between two cities on different continents. Condor, 100: 413–425
Clergeau P., Croci S., Jokim?ki, J., Kaisanlahti-Jokim?ki, M. L., Dinetti M. 2006. Avifauna homogenisation by urbanisation: Analysis at different European latitudes. Biol Conserv, 127: 336–344
Crooks K. R., Suarez A. V., Bolger D. T. 2004. Avian assemblages along a gradient of urbanization in a highly fragmented landscape. Biol Conserv, 115: 451–462
deMaynadier P. G., Hunter M. L. 1999. Forest canopy closure and juvenile emigration by pool-breeding amphibians in Maine.?J Wildl Manage,?63: 441–450
Dodd C. K., Smith L. L. 2003. Habitat destruction and alteration. Amphibian Conservation. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 94–112
Dodkins I., Rippey B., Hale P. 2005. An application of canonical correspondence analysis for developing ecological quality assessment metrics for river macrophytes. Freshwater Biol, 50: 891–904
Egan R. S., Paton P. W. C. 2004. Within-pond parameters affecting oviposition by wood frogs and spotted salamanders.?Wetlands,?24: 1–13
Fazal S. 2000. Urban expansion and loss of agricultural land-a GIS based study of Saharanpur City, India. Environ Urban, 12: 133–149
Grimm N. B., Faeth S. H., Golubiewski N. E., Redman C. L., Wu J., Bai X., Briggs J. M. 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319: 756–760
Garden J., Mcalpine C., Peterson A. N. N., Jones D., Possingham H. 2006. Review of the ecology of Australian urban fauna: a focus on spatially explicit processes. Austral Ecol, 31: 126–148
Garcia-Gonzalez C., Garcia-Vazquez E. 2012. Urban ponds, neglected Noah’s ark for amphibians.?J Herpetol,?46: 507–514
Guzy J. C., Mccoy E. D., Deyle A. C., Gonzalez S. M., Halstead N., Mushinsky H. R. 2012. Urbanization interferes with the use of amphibians as indicators of ecological integrity of wetlands. J Appl Ecol, 49: 941–952
Hazell D., Hero K., Lindenmayer D., Cunningham R. 2004. A comparison of constructed and natural habitat for frog conservation in an Australian agricultural landscape. Biol Conserv,?119: 61–71
Hamer A. J., McDonnell M. J. 2008. Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: A review. Biol Conserv, 141: 2432–2449
Hels T., Buchwald E. 2001. The effect of road kills on amphibian populations. Biol Conserv,?99: 331–340
Harris R. B., Burnham K. P. 2002. On estimating wildlife densities from line tramsect data.?Curr Zool,?48: 812–818
Internet reference. Shanghai statistical yearbook, density of population 1989–2013. Retrieved from:
Liu J. Y., Liu M. L., Zhuang D. F., Zhang Z. X., Deng X. Z. 2003. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995–2000. Science in China Series D: Earth Sci, 46: 373–384
McKinney M. L. 2002, Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation The impacts of urbanization on native species are poorly studied, but educating a highly urbanized human population about these impacts can greatly improve species conservation in all ecosystems.?BioScience,?52: 883–890
Marzluff J. M., Bowman R., Donnelly R. 2001. A historical perspective on urban bird research: trends, terms, and approaches. Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. New York: Springer, 1–17
Miller J. R., Hobbs R. J. 2002. Conservation where people live and work.?Conserv Biol,?16: 330–337
Mazerolle M. J. 2004. Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica, 60: 45–53
McDonnell M. J., Pickett S. T. A., Pouyat R. V. 1993. The application of the ecological gradient paradigm to the study of urban effects. Humans as components of ecosystems. New York: Springer, 175–189
MacGregor-Fors I., Ordo?ez O. H., Ortega-?lvarez R. 2013. Urban croaking: Diversity and distribution of anurans in a neotropical city. Urban Ecosyst, 16: 389–396
Matson P. 1990. The use of urban gradients in ecological studies. Ecology, 71: 1231
McDonnell M. J., Hahs A. K. 2008. The use of gradient analysis studies in advancing our understanding of the ecology of urbanizing landscapes: Current status and future directions. Land Ecol, 23: 1143–1155
McDonnell M. J., Pickett S. T. A. 1990. The study of ecosystem structure and function along urban-rural gradients: An unexploited opportunity for Ecology. Ecology, 71: 1232–1237
McDonnell M. J., Pickett S. T. A., Groffman P., Bohlen P., Pouyat R. V., Zipperer W. C., Parmelee R. V., Carreiro M. M., Medley K. 1997. Ecosystem processes along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosys, 1: 21–36
Melles S., Glenn S., Martin K. 2003. Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity. Species-environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient. Conserv Ecol, 7: 271–279
Orizaola G., Bra?a F. 2006. Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern spain. Anim Conserv, 9: 171–178
Pautasso M. 2007. Scale dependence of the correlation between human population presence and vertebrate and plant species richness.?Ecol Lett,?10: 16–24
Porej D., Hetherington T. E. 2005. Designing wetlands for amphibians: The importance of predatory fish and shallow littoral zones in structuring of amphibian communities.?Wetl Ecol Manag, 13: 445–455
Petranka J. W., Harp E. M., Holbrook C. T., Hamel J. A. 2007. Long-term persistence of amphibian populations in a restored wetland complex. Biol Conserv, 138: 371–380
Purrenhage J. L., Boone M. D. 2009. Amphibian community response to variation in habitat structure and competitor density. Herpetologica,?65: 14–30
Price S. J., Marks D. R., Howe R. W., Hanowski J. A. M., Niemi G. J. 2005. The importance of spatial scale for conservation and assessment of anuran populations in coastal wetlands of the western great lakes, USA. Landscape Ecol, 20: 441–454
Pillsbury F. C., Miller J. R. 2008. Habitat and landscape characteristics underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient.?Ecol Appl,?18: 1107–1118
Paul M. J., Meyer J. L. 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 32: 333–365
Rubbo M. J., Kiesecker J. M. 2005. Amphibian breeding distribution in an urbanized landscape.?Conserv Biol,?19: 504–511
Stuart S. N., Chanson J. S., Cox N., Young B. E., Rodrigues A. S. L., Fischman D. L., Waller R. W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.?Science,?306: 1783–1786
Semlitsch R. D. 2000. Principles for management of aquatic-breeding amphibians. J Wildl Manage,?64: 5–31
Stevens C. E., Paszkowski C. A. 2004. Using chorus-size ranks from call surveys to estimate reproductive activity of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). J Herpetol, 38: 404–410
Scheffers B. R., Paszkowski C. A. 2013. Amphibian use of urban stormwater wetlands: The role of natural habitat features.?Landscape Urban Plan,?113: 139–149
Skidds D. E., Mitchell J. C. 2007. Habitat correlates of reproductive effort in wood frogs and spotted salamanders in an urbanizing watershed. J Herpetol, 41: 439–450
Shirose L., Dunn L., Barton D. R., Struger J., Bishop C. A., Shepherd D., Lang A. L. 2000. Contamination and wildlife communities in stormwater detention ponds in Guelph and the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, 1997 and 1998, Part 1. Wildlife communities. Water Qual Res J Can, 35: 399–435
Smith A. M., Green D. M. 2005. Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: Are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography,?28: 110–128
Song B. S. 2003. Urbanization, Suburbanization and Social Reconstruction–A Case Study of Shanghai. J East China Norm Univ (Philos Soc Sci), 35: 97–104
Tsuji M., Ushimaru A., Osawa T., Mitsuhashi H. 2011.Paddy-associated frog declines via urbanization: A test of the dispersal-dependent-decline hypothesis. Landscape Urban Plan, 103: 318–325
Vasconcelos D., Calhoun A. J. K. 2006. Monitoring created seasonal pools for functional success: A six-year case study of amphibian responses, Sears Island, Maine, USA.?Wetlands,?26: 992–1003
Vos C. C., Chardon J. P. 1998. Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis.?J Appl Ecol, 44–56
Vignoli L., Mocaer I., Luiselli L., Bologna M. A. 2009. Can a large metropolis sustain complex herpetofauna communities? An analysis of green space areas suitability in Rome, Anim Conserv, 12: 456–466
Vignoli L., Scirè S., Bologna M. A. 2013. Rural–urban gradient and land use in a millenary metropolis: How urbanization affects avian functional groups and the role of old villas in bird assemblage patterning. Web Ecol, 13: 49–67
Weir L. A., Fiske I. J., Royle J. A. 2009. Trends in Anuran Occupancy From Northem States of the Ametic: An Amphibian Monitoring Program. Herpetol Conserv Biol, 4: 389–402
Wang J. L., Xue W. J., Li N. B., Wang X. L., Jiang H. R., Xu H. F. 2008. Hibernation of Rana limnocharis in Shanghai farmland. Chin J Ecol, 10: 1289–1291
Wang Z., Zhou H. W., Chen G. Z., Gao H. 2014. Countermeasure to Control Shanghai Population Scale with Fast Growth Effectively. J Soc Sci, 2: 56–65
Xie Y. M., Huang Z. Y., Du D. C., Qin X. K., Ma J. F., Yu K., Yu W. D., Xu H. F. 2002. Shanghai terrestrial wildlife resources investigation report. Shanghai Municipal Forestry Administration
Yoon C. G. 2009. Wise use of paddy rice fields to partially compensate for the loss of natural wetlands. Paddy Water Environ, 7: 357–366


Last Update: 2016-12-25