Von Carlo P. DELA TORRE and Olga M. NUNEZA.Species Diversity, Distribution, and Microhabitats of Anurans on Mt. Kalo-Kalo of the Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Philippines[J].Asian Herpetological Research(AHR),2021,12(1):58-75.[doi:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.200023]
Click Copy

Species Diversity, Distribution, and Microhabitats of Anurans on Mt. Kalo-Kalo of the Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Philippines
Share To:

Asian Herpetological Research[ISSN:2095-0357/CN:51-1735/Q]

2021 VoI.12 No.1
Research Field:
Publishing date:


Species Diversity, Distribution, and Microhabitats of Anurans on Mt. Kalo-Kalo of the Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Philippines
Von Carlo P. DELA TORRE123* and Olga M. NUNEZA3
1 Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Mintal, Tugbok District, Davao City 8022, Philippines
2 Wildlife-Human Interaction Studies, Ecological Research, and Biodiversity Conservation Laboratory, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Mintal, Tugbok District, Davao City 8022, Philippines
3 Department of Biological Sciences and Biodiversity Laboratory, Premier Research Institute of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, A. Bonifacio Ave, Iligan City 9200, Philippines
conservation endemic indicator species montane forest protected area
Anurans are considered good indicators of habitat quality due to their bi-phasic life mode, limited dispersal abilities, and sensitivity to environmental changes brought about by habitat fragmentation, pollution, climate change, and emerging infectious diseases. This study aimed to determine species diversity and local distribution of anurans in lower (1000–1400 masl) and upper (1400–1600 masl) montane forests on Mt. Kalo-Kalo of the Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Central Mindanao, Southern Philippines by employing standard sampling techniques for amphibians. We recorded a total of 251 individual anurans, representing 12 species during a brief recent study period. Mt. Kalo-Kalo’s upper montane forest has a higher diversity index (H’ = 1.276) than the lower montane forest (H’ = 0.851). Despite the very low diversity indices, the level of endemism of anurans was 100% where ten of the recorded species are Mindanao Faunal Region endemics and an additional two species are Philippine endemics. Ansonia muelleri exhibited the highest local abundance and individuals of this species which constituted 73% of individual anurans observed. Most of the species encountered prefer terrestrial and aquatic microhabitats, specifically on the rocks and bank substrates along the rivers and streams. Three species of anurans (Philautus acutirostris, P. poecilius, and Rhacophorus bimaculatus) were strictly found in arboreal microhabitats. Limnonectes magnus and A. muelleri have overlapping microhabitats. Results indicate that for such a short survey and modest sampling effort, the lower and upper montane forests of Mt. Kalo-Kalo support high endemism of anuran species suggesting that conservation efforts continue to be a priority in this unique protected area.


Alcala A. C. 1962. Breeding behavior and early development of frogs of Negros, Philippines Islands. Copeia, 4: 679–726
Alcala A. C. 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna: Amphibians and reptiles. Manila: Natural Resource Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and the University of the Philippines, 195 pp
Alcala A. C., Custodio C. C. 1995. Status of endemic Philippine amphibian population. Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources. Sylvatrop Tech J Philipp. Ecosyst Nat Res, 5: 72–86
Alcala A. C., Brown W. C. 1982. Reproductive biology of some species of Philautus (Rhacophoridae) and other Philippine anurans. Kalikasan, Philippine J Biol, 11: 203–226
Alcala A. C., Brown W. C. 1998. Philippine amphibians: An illustrated field guide. Bookmarks Inc, Makati City, vii+ 116 pp
Almeria M. L., Nu?eza O. M. 2013. Amphibian diversity and endemism in the swamp forests of Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. AES Bioflux, 5(1): 30–48
Arifin U. D., Iskandar T., Bickford D. P., Brown R. M., Meier R., Kutti S. N. 2011. Phylogenetic re?lationship within the genus Staurois (Amphibia, Ranidae) based on 16S rRNA sequences. Zootaxa, 2733: 39–52
Ates F. B., Delima E. M. M. 2008. Assemblage and microhabitats of anurans from Mt. Sinaka, Arakan, Cotabato and Mt. Hamiguitan, Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines. J Nat Stud, 7: 101–107
Aureo W., Bande M. 2017. Anurans species diversity and composition along the successional gradient of the evergreen rainforest in Silago, Southern Leyte, Philippines. Internat J Sci Res Environ Sci, 5(3): 82–90
Balete D. S, Alviola P. A, Duya M. R. M., Duya M. V., Heaney L. R., Rickart E. A. 2011. The mammals of the Mingan Mountains, Luzon: Evidence for a new center of mammalian endemism. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci, 2: 75–87
Beukema W. 2011. Herpetofauna of disturbed forest fragments on the lower Mt. Kitanglad Range, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Salamandra, 47: 90–98
Bickford D., Warkentin I. G., Sodhi N. S., Bradshaw C. J. A. 2010. Impacts of climate change on the amphibians and reptiles of Southeast Asia. Biodivers Conserv, 19: 1043–1106
Brown R. M. 2015. A new species of stream frog (genus Hylarana) from the mountains of southern Mindanao Island, Philippines. Herpetologica, 71: 223–233
Brown R. M., Diesmos A. C., Alcala A. C. 2001. The state of Philippine herpetology and the challenges for the next decade. Silliman J, 42: 18–87
Brown R. M., Diesmos A. C., Alcala A. C. 2008. Philippine amphibian biodiversity is increasing in leaps and bounds. 82–83. In Stuart S. N., Hoffmann M., Chanson J. S., Cox N.A., Berridge R., Ramani P., Young B. E. (Eds). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Arlington, Barcelona and Gland: Lynx Ediciones, IUCN—The World Conservation Union and Conservation International, 82–83
Brown R. M., Diesmos A. C., Sanguila M. B., Siler C. D., Diesmos M. L., Alcala A. C. 2012. Amphibian conservation in the Philippines. FrogLog, 104: 40–43
Brown R. M., Guttman S. I. 2002. Phylogenetic systematics of the Rana signata complex of Philippine and Bornean stream frogs: reconsideration of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s Line at the Oriental–Australian faunal zone interface. Biol J Linn Soc, 76: 393–461
Brown R. M., Siler C. D., Diesmos A. C., Alcala A. C. 2009. Philippine frogs of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura; Megophryidae): Phylogeny-based species delimitation, taxonomic review, and descriptions of three new species. Herpetol Monog, 23: 1–44
Brown R. M., Siler C. D. 2013. Spotted stream frog diversification at the Australasian faunal zone interface, mainland versus island comparisons, and a test of the Philippine ‘dual-umbilicus’ hypothesis. J Biogeog, 41: 182–195.
Brown R. M., Siler C. D., Oliveros C. H., Esselstyn J. A., Diesmos A. C., Hosner P. A., Linkem C. W., Barley A. J., Oaks J. R., Sanguila M. B., Welton L. J., 2013. Evolutionary processes of diversification in a model island archipelago. Ann Rev Ecol Evol System, 44: 411–435
Brown W. C., Alcala A. C. 1970. The zoogeography of the Philippine Islands, a fringing archipelago. Proc Calif Acad Sci, 38: 105–130
Brown W. C., Alcala A. C. 1994. Philippine frogs of the family Rhacophoridae. Proc California Acad Sci, 48: 185–220
Buot Jr. I. E., Okitsu S. 1998. Vertical distribution and structure of the three vegetation in montane forest of Pulog, Cordillera mountain range and the highest mountain in Luzon Is., Philippines. Veget Sci, 15: 19–32
Buolenger G. A. 1912. Fauna of the Malay Peninsula. Reptilia and Batrachia. London, Taylor and Francis, 79 figs. xii+294 pp
Calo T. J., Nu?eza O. M. 2015. Species richness and endemism of anurans in Bega Watershed, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. J Biodiv Environ Sci, 7(3): 1–14
Catibog-Sinha C. S., Heaney L. R. 2006. Philippine Biodiversity: Principles and Practice. Quezon City: Haribon Found Conserv Nat Resour
Department of Environment and Natural Resources- Biodiversity Management Bureau. 2019. Updated National List of Threatened Philippine Fauna and Their Categories. Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, 1–35
DENR: State of the Environment. Draft Report, Tech. rep., Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1989
Davic R. D., Welsh H. H. Jr. 2004. On the ecological roles of salamanders. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst, 35: 405–434
David P., Pauwels O. S. G., Lays G. P. F. A. G., Lenglet L. 2006. On a collection of reptiles from southern Mindanao Island, the Philippines. Biologie, 76: 201–227
Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M., Alcala A. C., Sison R.n V., Afuang L. E, Gee G. V. A. 2002. Philippine amphibians and reptiles: An overview of species diversity, biogeography, and conservation, In Ong P., Afuang L., Rosell-Ambal R. (Eds.), Philippine n biodiversity conservation priorities: A second iteration of the national biodiversity strategy and action plan. Department of Environment and Natural Resources- Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines, 26–44
Delima E., Diesmos A. C., Ibanez J. C. 2007. The Herpetological Importance of Mt. Hamiguitan Range, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Banwa: The Multidisciplinary Journal of University of the Philippines-Mindanao, 4: 27–40
Delima-Baron E. M., Mohagan A. B., Leano E. P., Amoroso V. B. 2019. Philautus (Bush Frogs) Species from Montane Forest of Marilog District, Davao City, Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Env Nat Resour J, 17(2): 62–70
Devan-Song A., Brown R. M. 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetol Res, 3: 1–20
Diamond J. M, Gilpin M. E. 1983. Biogeographic umbilici and the origin of the Philippine avifauna. Oikos, 41: 307–321
Dickerson R. E. 1928. Distribution of Life in the Philippines. Manila: Bur Sci, 322
Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M. 2011. Diversity, biogeography and conservation of Philippine amphibians. In Biology and Conservation of Tropical Asian Amphibians. Proceedings of the Conference “Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, south-east Asia.’’ In Das I., Haas A., Tuen A. A. (Eds). Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia, 26–49
Diesmos A. C,. Alcala A. C., Siler C. D., Brown R. M. 2014. Status and Conservation of Philippine Amphibians. In Heatwole H., Das I. (Eds.) Conservation Biology of Amphibians of Asia. Status and Decline of Amphibians: Eastern Hemisphere. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Diesmos A. C., Watters J. L., Huron N. A., Davis D. R., Alcala A. C., Crombie R. I., Afuang L. E., Gee-Das G., Sison R. V., Sanguila M. B., Penrod M. L., Labonte M. J., Davey C. S., Leone E. A., Diesmos M. L., Sy E. Y., Welton L. J., Brown R. M., Siler C. D. 2015. Amphibians of the Philippines, Part I: Checklist of the Species. Series 4, Vol. 62, Part 3, No. 20: 457–539
Duya M. R. M. D., Duya M. V., Alviola P. A., Balete D. S., Heaney L. R. 2011. Diversity of small mammals in montane and mossy forests on Mount Cetaceo, Cagayan Province, Luzon. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci, 2: 88–95
Esselstyn J. A., Brown R. M. 2009. The role of repeated sea-level fluctuations in the generation of shrew (Soricidae: Crocidura) diversity in the Philippine Archipelago. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 58: 171–181
Esselstyn J. A., Timm R. M., Brown R. M. 2009. Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in SE Asian shrews. Evolution, 63: 2595–2610
Fallarcuna B., Perez G. J. 2016. Forest Cover Dynamics in the Philippines from LandSAT-Derived Global Forest Cover Dataset (2000–2012). J Philippine Geosci Rem Sens Soc, 4–17
Fernando E. S., Sun B. Y., Suh M. H., Kong H. Y., Koh K. S. 2004. Flowering Plants and Ferns of Mt. Makiling ASEAN-Korea Environmental Cooperation Unit Seoul National University, Korea
Fernando E. S. 2005. Restoring the Philippine Rainforests, Haribon Policy Paper No. 2
Ferner J., Brown R., Sison R., Kennedy R. 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetol Res, 9: 1?37
Fu C., Hua X., Li J., Chang Z., Pu Z., Chen J. 2006. Elevational patterns of frog species richness and endemic richness in the Hengduan Mountains, China: Geometric contraints, area and climate effects. Ecography, 29: 919–927
Gojo Cruz P. H. P., Afuang L. E., Gonzales J. C. T., Gruezo W. S. M. 2018. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines: the Herpetefauna of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed, Nueva Ecija Province, Caraballo Mountaim Range. Asian Herpetol Res, 9(4): 201–223
Gonzales J. C. T., Dans A. T. L. 1994. Microhabitats of Endemic Diminutive Frogs and Skinks in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Luzon, Philippine. Asia Life Sci, 3(2): 227–234
Gonzales P., Su Y. C., Siler C. D., Barley A. J., Sanguila M. B., Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M. 2014. Ar?chipelago colonization by ecologically dissimilar amphibians: uating the expectation of common evolutionary history of geographical diffusion in co-distributed rainforest tree frogs in islands of Southeast Asia. Mol Phylog Evol, 72: 35–41
Gaulke M. 2011. Herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Frankfurt am Main: Edition Chimaira. 388 pp
Gruezo W. S. M. 1997. Floral Diversity Profile of Mount Makiling Forest Reserve, Luzon, Philippines. In Dove M. R., Sajise P. E. (Eds.), The Conditions of Biodiversity Maintenance in Asia—The Policy Linkages Between Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development, 153–175
Hammer O. H., David A. T., Ryan P. D. 2001. Past: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontol Electron, 4(1): 9
Hampson K., 2001. Amphibian distribution and abundance in the Polillo Islands. Technical Report 1, Annotated Bibliography of Studies, Biodiversity Status and Institutional Arrangements of the Polillo Group of Islands, Quezon Province
Heaney L. R., Tabaranza B. R., Rickart E. A., Balete D. S., Ingle N. R. 2006. The Mammals of Mt. Kitanglad Nature Park, Mindanao, Philippines. Fieldiana Zool, 112: 1–63
Heaney L. R. 1985. Zoogeographic evidence for middle and late Pleistocene land bridges to the Philippines. Mod Quat Re, 9: 127–143
Heaney L. R. 1986. Biogeography of small mammals in Southeast Asia estimates of rates of colonization, estimation and speciation. Biol J Linn Soc, 28: 127–165
Smith B. E. 1993. Notes on a Collection of Squamate Reptiles from Eastern Mindanao, Philippine Islands Part 2: Serpentes. Asiatic Herpetological Research, 5: 96–102
Heaney L. R. 1998. The origins and dimensions of biodiversity in the Philippines In Heaney L. R, Regalado J. C. Jr. (Eds.) Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rainforest. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 12–22
Heaney L. R. 2000. Dynamic disequilibrium: A long term, large scale perspective on the equilibirum model of island biogeography. Glob Ecol Biogeog, 9(1): 59–74
Heaney L. R 2004. Conservation biogeography in oceanic archipelagoes. In Lomolino M.V., Heaney L.R. (Eds.) Frontiers of Biogeography: New Directions in the Geography of Nature. Sinauer Publishers, Sunderland MA: 345–360
Heaney L. R., Balete D. S., Rickart E. A., Alviola P. A., Duya M. R. M. 2011. Seven new species and a new subgenus of forest mice (Rodentia: Muridae: Apomys) from Luzon Island. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci, 2: 1–60
Heaney L. R., Dolar M. L., Balete D. S., Esselstyn J. A., Rickart E. A., Sedlock J. L. 2010. Synopsis of Philippine Mammals. Chicago: Field Mus Nat Hist
Heaney L. R. Rickart E. A. 1990. Correlations of clades and clines: Geographical, elevational and phylogenetic patterns in Philippine mammals. In Peters G., Hutterer R. (Eds.) , Correlations of clades and clines: Geographical, elevational and phylogenetic patterns in Philippine mammals. Vertebrates in the Tropics. Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn: 321–322
Heaney L. R, Regalado J. C. 1998. Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rainforest. Chicago, The Field Museum of Natural History: 88 pp
Heaney L. R., Walsh J. S. Jr, Townsend-Peterson A. 2005. The roles of geological history and colonization abilities in genetic differentiation between mammalian populations in the Philippine archipelago. J Biogeogr, 32: 229– 247
Heaney L. R., Mittermeier R. A. 1997. Philippines. In Mittermeier R. A., Gil R. P., Mittermeier C. G. (Eds.), Megadiversity: Earth’s Biologically Wealthiest Nations, 236–255
Heatwole H., Wilkinson J. W. 2012. Amphibian Biology, Volume 10 Conservation and Decline of Amphibians: Ecological Aspects, Effects of Humans, and Management. Baulkham Hills: Surrey Beatty and Sons
Heyer W. R., Donnelly M. A., McDiarmid R. W., Hayek L. A., Foster M. S. 1994. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 364 pp
Huxley T. H. 1868. On the classification and distribution of the Alectoromorphae and Heteromorphae. Proc Zool Soc Lond, 1868: 294–319
Inger R. F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum, 525 pp
Inger R. F. 1999. Distributions of amphibians in southern Asia and adjacent islands. In Duellman W. E., Baltimore M. D. (Eds.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, John Hopkins Univ Press, 445–482
Inger R. F. 2007. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Chicago: Chicago Natural History History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd., Kota Kinabalu, 1–364 pp
Iskandar J., Kotanegara R. 1993. Methodology for Biodiversity Research. In Pei S., Sajise P. E. (Eds.), Regional Study of Biodiversity: Concepts, Framework, and Methods. Proceedings of the Southeast Asian Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN) and Program in Environment (ENV). East-West Center Workshop. Yunnan University Press
IUCN. 2010. Guidelines for using the IUCN redlist categories and criteria, version 8.1 Elec?tronic material availablehttp://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SSC/RedList/RedList?Guidelines.pdf [captured on August 15 2015]
IUCN. 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 1016-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org
IUCN. 2018. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 1016-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2019. Limnonectes magnus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T58353A58479651. http://www.iucnredlist.org
Jiang J. P., Xie F., Zang C. X., Cai L., Li C., Wang B., Li J. T., Wang J., Hu J. H., Wang Y., Liu J. Y. 2016. Assessing the threat status of amphibians in China. Biodiv Sci, 24: 588?597
Jones A. W., Kennedy R. S. 2008. Evolution in a tropical archipelago: Comparative phylogeography of Philippine fauna and flora reveals complex patterns of colonization and diversification. Biol J Linn Soc, 95: 620–639
Lehtinen R. M., Galatowitsch S. M., Tester J. R. 1999. Consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation for wetland amphibian assemblages. Wetlands, 19(1): 1–2
Leviton A. E. 1963. Remarks on the zoogeography of Philippine terrestrial snakes. Proc Calif Acad Sci, 42: 112–145
Linkem C. A., Hesed K., Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M. 2010. Species boundaries and cryptic lineage diversity in a Philippine forest skink complex (Reptilia; Squamata; Scincidae: Lygosominae). Mol Phylogenet Evol, 56: 572–585
Lomolino M. V., Riddle B. R., Whittaker R. J., Brown J. H. 2010. Biogeography, 4th Ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
Magurran A. E. 1988. Ecological Diveristy and its Measurement. Croom Helm Ltd. New South Wales
Margules C. R., Pressey R. L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 405: 243–253
Mcleod D. S., Siler C. D., Diesmos A. C., Diesmos M. L., Garcia V. S., Arkonceo A. O., Balaquit K. L., Uy C. C., Villaseran M. M., Yarra E. C. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetol Res, 2: 177–198
Mohagan A. B., Nu?eza O. M., Diesmos A. C., Escarlos J. A., Gracia A. G., Selpa C. T., Baguhin L. J., Coritico F., Amoroso V. B. 2018. Anuran Species Richness and Endemism in Four Long-Term Ecological Research Sites in Mindanao, Philippines. Asian J Conserv Biol, 7(2): 83–91
Mittermeier R. A., Myers N. Robles P. G., Mittermeier C. G. 1999. Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecosystems. Mexico City: CEMEX Myers GS. 1962. Ability of amphibians to cross sea barriers with especial reference to Pacific zoogeography. Proc Seventh Pac Sci Congr, 4: 19–22
Mittermeier R. A., Turner W. R., Larsen F. W., Brooks T. M., Gascon C. 2011. Global Biodiversity Conservation: The Critical Role of Hotspots. Biodiv Hotspot, 3–22
Naniwadekar R., Vasudevan K. 2007. Patterns in Diversity of Anurans along an elevational gradient in the Western Ghats, South India. J Biogeog, 34: 842–853
National Research Council. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Population Ecology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press
Nuneza O. M., Ates F. B., Alicante A. A. 2010. Distribution of endemic and threatened herpetofauna in Mt. Malindang, Mindanao, Philippines. Biodiv Conserv, 19: 503–518
Nuneza O. M. 2012. Photographic Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Mindanao Philippines. Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension, Mindanao State University—Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines, 2–36
Nuneza O. M., Galorio A. H. 2014. Cave bat fauna of Siargao Island protected landscape and seascape, Philippines. AES Bioflux, 3(6): 243–255
Nuneza O. M., Calizo-Enguito M. R., Labajo-Villantes Y., Ponce A. G. 2015. Species richness and endemism of cave herpetofauna in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. ELBA Bioflux, 1(7): 10–25
Nuneza O. M., Non M. L. P., Oconer E. P., Aljibe M. C. 2017. Species richness and endemism of Anurans in Mt. Matutum protected landscape, South Cotabato, Philippines. J Biodiv Environ Sci, 10(5): 1–13
Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 2000. Proclamation No. 305, Malacanang, Manila, Philippines
Oliver L. A., Prendini E., Kraus F., Raxworthy C. J. 2015. Systematics and biogeography of the Hy?larana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 90: 176–192
Oliveros C. H., Ota H., Crombie R. I., Brown R. M. 2011. The Herpetofauna of the Babuyan group of islands, northern Philippines. Scientific Publications of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas, 43: 1–20
Plaza J. L., Sanguila M. B. 2015. Preliminary Report on the Anurans of Mount Hilong-hilong, Agusan Del Norte, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines. Asian Herpetol Res, 6(1): 18–33
Peters W. C. H. 1867. Herpetologische Notizen. Monatsberichte der K?niglichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1867: 13–37
Peterson A. T., Brooks T., Gamauf A., Gonzalez J. C., Mallari N. A. D., Dutson G., Bush S. E., Clayton D. H., Fernandez R. 2008. The Avifauna of Mt. Kitanglad, Bukidnon Province, Mindanao, Philippines. Fieldiana Zool, 114: 1–43
Poe S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa, 3626: 295–299
Sanguila M. B., Cobb K. A., Siler C. D., Diesmos A. C., Alcala A. C., Brown R. M. 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: The herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent island. Zookeys, 624: 1–134
Siler C. D.,. McVay J. D., Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M. 2009. A new species of Fanged Frog, Genus Limnonectes (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Southeast Mindanao Island, Philippines. Herpetologica, 65: 105–114
Siler C. D., Oaks J. R., Esselstyn J. A., Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M. 2010. Phylogeny and biogeography of Philippine bent-toed geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) contradict a prevailing model of Pleistocene diversification. Mol Phylogenet Evol., 55: 699–710
Siler C. D., Swab J., Diesmos A. C., Averia L., Alcala A. C., Brown R. M. 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles, Romblon Island Group, central Philippines: Comprehensive herpetofaunal inventory. Check Lit, 8: 443–462
Siler C. D., Welton L. J., Siler J. M., Brown J., Bucol A. 2011. Amphibians and reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, northern Philippines: new island distribution records. Check List, 7: 182–195
Setiadi M. I., McGuire J. A., Brown R. M., Zubairi M., Iskandar D. T. 2011. Adaptive radiation and ecological opportunity in Sulawesi and Philippine fanged frog (Limnonectes) communities. Am Nat, 178: 221–240
Simmons J. 2002. Herpetological collecting and collections management. SSAR Herp Circ, 31: 1–153
Sodhi N. S., Koh L. P., Brook B. W., Ng P. K. L. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity: An impending disaster. Trends Ecol Evol, 19: 654–660
Sularte R. P., Boyles L. Z., Calomot N. H., Demetillo M. T., Ombat L. A., Ngilangil M. C. M., Binag G. M. 2015. Species distribution and abundance of amphibians in two vegetation types of Agusan Marsh, Philippines. AES Bioflux, 7(1): 20–34
Supsup C. E., Puna N., Asis A. A., Redoblado B., Panaguinit M. F., Guinto F., Rico E. L., Diesmos A. C., Brown R. M., Mallari N. A. D. 2016. Amphibians and Reptiles of Cebu, Philippines. Asian Herpetol Res, 7: 151–179
Taylor E. H. 1922. Additions to the herpetological fauna of the Philippine Islands, I. Phil J Sci, 21: 161-206, pls. 1–7
Toledo-Bruno A. G., Macas D. G., Buenavista D. P., Medina M. P., Forten R. R. C. 2017. Amphibian and reptile diversity in Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Philippines. Environ Exp Biol, 15: 127–135
Uetz P., Freed P., Ho?ek J. 2020. The Reptile Database. Retrieved from http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed May 3, 2020
Vidal K. C., Macusi E. D., Ponce A. G. 2018. Inventory and Morphometrics of Anuran SpeciesFound in Mt. Kilala of the Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Governor Generoso, Davao Oriental, Philippines. Phil J Sci, 147(4): 631–640
Warguez D., Mondejar E., Demayo C. 2013. Frogs and their microhabitat preferences in the Agricultural and Secondary Forest areas in the Vicinity of Mt. Kalatungan Mountain, Bukidnon, Philippines. Int Res J Biol Sci, 2(10): 51–63
Watters J. L., Cummings S. T., Flanagan R. L., Siler C. D. 2016. Review of morphometric measurements used in anuran species descriptions and recommendations for a standardized approach. Zootaxa, 4072(4): 477–495
Whitford H. N. 1911. The Forests of the Philippines. Part I, Forest Types and Products. Philippine Bureau of Forestry Bulletin No. 10. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 94pp
Wiens J. J., Sukumaran J. S., Pyron R. A., Brown R. M. 2009. Evolutionary and biogeographic ori?gins of high tropical diversity in old world frogs (Ranidae). Evolution, 64: 1217–1231


Last Update: 2021-03-25